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6.3,4,5,6 bio terms

TermDefinition
trait one of 2 or more possible forms of a character; a recognizable feature or characteristic of an organism
genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parent to offspring
purebred type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
cross mating of 2 organisms
law of segregation Mendel's first law, stating that (1) organisms inherit 2 copies of genes, from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation
gene the most basic physical unit of heridity; a segment of nucleic acids that codes for a functional unit of RNA and/ or protein
allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
homozygous describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes
heterozygous describes an individual that carries two different alleles of a gene
genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
phenotype an organism's appearance or the other detectable characteristics that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
recessive in genetics, describes an allele that is expressed only when no dominant allele is present in an individual
punnet square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
mono-hybrid cross a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
test cross cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
dihbrid cross a cross between individuals that have the different alleles for the same gene
law of independant assortment the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event; the mathematical ratio of the number of times one outcome of any event is likely to occur to the number of possible outcomes of the event
crossing over exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis 1
genetic linkage tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Created by: megan_boehl1