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Chapter 6 Vocab pt.2

TermDefinition
trait one of two or more possible forms of a character; a recognizable feature or characteristic of an organism
genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
purebred type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
cross mating of two organisms
law of segregation Mendel's first law, stating that (1) organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation
gene the most basic physical unit of heredity; a segment of nucleic acids that codes for a functional unit of RNA and/or a protein
allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
homozygous describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes
heterozygous describes an individual that carries two different alleles of a gene
genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
dominant in genetics, describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
recessive in genetics, describes an allele that is expressed only when no dominant allele is present in an individual
Punnett Square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
monohybrid cross a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
testcross cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
dihybrid cross a cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
law of independent assortment the law that states the genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur
crossing over exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
genetic linkage tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Created by: mbaker36