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Life Science: Ch1: Cells

Cells are too small to be seen without a ___ device. magnifying
The invention of the ___ in the 1600s changed people’s ideas about cells. microscope
___ can enlarge images up to 1,500 times. Light microscopes
___ microscopes can enlarge images 100,000 times or more. Electron
The ___ describes how cells relate to living things. cell theory
All ___ are made of one or more cells. organisms
The ___ is the smallest unit of life. cell
All new cells come from ___ cells. pre-existing
Scientists agree that all living things have common ___. characteristics
All cells are ___ with certain structures performing specialized functions. organized
Cells ___ to changes in the environment. respond
___ in many-celled organisms usually occurs as cell number increases. Growth
Organisms ___ and create offspring similar to themselves. reproduce
Organisms maintain their internal environment through ___. homeostasis
Cells use ___ to transport substances, make new cells, and perform chemical reactions. energy
Atoms and ___ are the building blocks of cells. molecules
___ has unique properties to help cells with homeostasis and substance transport. Water
Cells also contain such basic substances as ___, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. proteins
Proteins are composed of folded chains of molecules called ___. amino acids
___ include DNA, which contains the cell’s genetic information, and RNA, which is used to make proteins. Nucleic acids
___ include fats, which store large amounts of chemical energy. Lipids
___, composed of sugar molecules, store energy for quick release. Carbohydrates
Cells have different shapes and sizes depending on their ___. function
Every cell has a flexible covering called a ___, which is selectively permeable. cell membrane
Plant, fungi, and some bacteria cells have a rigid ___ outside the cell membrane. cell wall
Appendages, such as tail-like ___ or short hairlike ___, help cells move. flagella, cilia
Inside a cell is the ___, a thick fluid in which cell structures are suspended. cytoplasm
Cells have a network of fibers in the cytoplasm called the ___. cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton aids in ___ contraction, cell division, movement, and shape. muscle
Structures in the cell that have specific functions are called ___. organelles
The ___ is the control center of the cell. nucleus
The nucleus contains the cell’s ___ material in long chains of DNA. genetic
DNA chains are coiled into structures called ___. chromosomes
Inside the nucleus is the ___. It helps make structures that make proteins. nucleolus
The manufacture of ___ is an important function in cells. proteins
Proteins are built within ___, which can attach to the endoplasmic reticulum. ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with ribosomes is called ___ and is important for making proteins. rough endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes is called smooth ER and is important for making ___. lipids
Two kinds of ___ process the energy used by cells. organelles
Most of the cell’s energy is produced in the ___. mitochondria
Organisms that produce their own food manufacture it within ___. chloroplasts
The ___ processes, transports, and stores molecules. Golgi apparatus
___, which carry substances to the cell membrane for release, form from the Golgiapparatus Vesicles
Small ___ store food molecules, water, or waste products. vacuoles
An animal cell has a vacuole called the ___, which stores digestive enzymes. lysosome
A plant cell has a ___, which stores water and other molecules. central vacuole
Cells are classified as prokaryotic cells or ___ cells. eukaryotic
Cells without a nucleus or organelles are ___. prokaryotic
___ organisms, made up of one prokaryotic cell, were the only living things on bEarth for billions of years. Prokaryotic
A prokaryotic cell has a loop of ___ instead of chromosomes. DNA
Prokaryotes, also known as ___, can be harmful or beneficial to humans. bacteria
___ are essential for decomposition and can survive in extreme environments. Bacteria
Cells with a nucleus and other organelles are classified as ___. eukaryotic
Plants, animals, fungi, and protists all are made up of one or more ___ cells. eukaryotic
Many scientists suggest that eukaryotes evolved as a result of one ___ cell becoming part of another prokaryotic cell. prokaryotic
___ transforms stored energy in food molecules into usable energy in molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Cellular respiration
The first step in cellular respiration happens in the cytoplasm, where ___ breaks down a glucose molecule into two smaller molecules, releasing electrons glycolysis
The second and third steps of cellular respiration happen in the ___. mitochondria
In the second step of cellular respiration, the smaller molecules break down into ___, releasing more electrons. carbon dioxide
In the third step of cellular respiration, ___ is produced using the released electrons and water. ATP
Our muscle cells can release energy through ___ fermentation. lactic acid
Lactic acid fermentation takes place entirely in the ___. cytoplasm
Lactic acid fermentation uses glucose and produces ___ and carbon dioxide lactic acid
___ fermentation is used in the production of cheese and yogurt. Lactic acid
One-celled fungi called yeast use ___ to produce energy. alcohol fermentation
Alcohol fermentation uses glucose and produces ___ and carbon dioxide. ethanol
Alcohol fermentation produces fewer ___ molecules than cellular respiration. ATP
___ fermentation is used in baking bread. Alcohol
Some organisms use ___ to make food using a light source. photosynthesis
Light energy is absorbed by ___ and other pigments in the chloroplasts. chlorophyll
In photosynthesis, ___, water, and carbon dioxide are used to make sugar. light energy
___ is released into the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Oxygen
Most organisms use the sugars from ___, and photosynthesis supplies the oxygen we breathe. photosynthesis
Created by: jnosik