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Honors Week 6

DNA, Protein Synthesis, and Mutations

QuestionAnswer
Anticodon A specialized base triplet on one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
Cancer a disease characterized by abnormal cell growth
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal
Complementary base pairing cytosine, uracil, adenine, guanine, and thymine
Deletion and addition (frameshift) mutations A mutational loss or gain of a nucleotide from a gene.
DNA a nucleic acid which stores the genetic information controlling our heredity and characteristics
Fertilization Sexual reproduction. The combination of the egg and sperm.
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA
Hydrogen bonds A type of weak chemical bond formed between nitrogen bases
mRNA A type of RNA synthesized from DNA in the genetic material that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein
nitrogenous base An organic base that contains the element nitrogen found in DNA/RNA
nucleotide The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five carbod sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
peptide bonds joins amino acids together to form a protein
RNA A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U).
Mutations an altered sequence of DNA
Transcription The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
Translation The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
tRNA picks up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
Created by: nbctbio