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ES EMAP Ch. 2 Rocks2

Ch 2 Rocks

TermDefinition
Contact Metamorphism Rock minerals and texture are changed, mainly by heat, due to contact with magma. Usually results in nonfoliated texture.
Regional Metamorphism Rock minerals and texture are changed, mainly by pressure and heat, over a wide geographical area due to mountain building. Usually results in foliated texture.
Rock A mixture of solid minerals or mineraloids.
Mineraloid A mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate definite crystalline structure and/or chemical composition.
Rock Cycle The transition of rocks between rock types over geologic time as a result of melting and cooling, heat and pressure, or compaction and cementation of sediments.
James Hutton 1726-1797 A.D. Geologist Proposed the idea of Uniformitarianism; that the geologic processes occurring today were essentially the same processes that happened in the past.
Igneous Rock Rocks formed through the cooling and solidification of molten rock (lava or magma).
Lava Molten (liquid) rock at earth's surface.
Magma Molten (liquid) rock below earth's surface.
Intrusive Igneous rocks formed from solidification of magma.
Extrusive Igneous rocks formed from solidification of lava.
Basaltic Compositional group. Igneous rocks of darker color; usually high in iron and/or magnesium and containing less than 20% quartz minerals. Basaltic rocks are often fine-grained.
Granitic Compositional Group. Igneous rocks of lighter color; containing greater than 20% quartz minerals. Granitic rocks are often coarse-grained.
Andesitic Compositional Group. Igneous rocks of medium color; somewhere between granitic and Basaltic. Contain 57%-63% quartz minerals in addition to many other minerals.
Metamorphic Rock Rocks that have been changed due to the application of heat and pressure.
Foliated Containing flattened grains or crystals in parallel layers.
Nonfoliated Containing no flattened grains or crystals in parallel layers.
Sediments Loose materials such as bits of rocks, mineral grains, bits of shell or other mineraloids; including particles in solution.
Sedimentary Rock Rock formed as a result of sediments being deposited, compacted, and cemented together.
Cementation The process through which quartz, calcite, hematite, and limestone are deposited between existing mineral grains resulting in their bonding together to form a rock.
Detritus Particulate matter that forms sediment. It is categorized according to its size.
Phaneritic Crystals visible to the naked eye. Large crystals, formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath earth's surface.
Aphanitic Literally means "no crystals". It is commonly accepted that aphanitic rocks have very small to microscopic crystals present.
Porphyritic relating to or denoting a rock texture, typically found in volcanic rocks, containing distinct crystals or crystalline particles embedded in a fine-grained groundmass
Mafic (Basaltic) Rock type based on low levels of silicate minerals (45%-55%). Tend to be rich in iron and/or magnesium minerals.
Ultramafic Rock type based on extremely low levels of silicate minerals (<45%). Tend to be very rich in iron and/or magnesium minerals.
Felsic (Granitic) Rock type based on high levels of silicate minerals (>65%). Tend to be lower in iron and/or magnesium minerals.
Intermediate (Andesitic) Rock type based on moderate levels of silicate minerals (55%-65%).
Vitreous "Glassy" in appearance.
Created by: MrGross