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Genetics

7th grade Genetics Test

TermDefinition
Genetics The scientific study of heredity
Heredity The passing of characteristics/traits from parents to offspring
Genes The code in the DNA that determines what will be passed on to offspring
Inherit Receiving characteristics or traits from parents
Trait A characteristic that is inherited and can be either recessive or dominant
Dominant An observed trait that can be expressed with only 1 allele and will mask a recessive allele if it is present
Recessive An observed trait that need 2 alleles to be present, otherwise the dominant allele will mask the trait and it will not be expressed
Homozygous Has 2 of the same alleles (also known as purebred)
Homozygous Recessive Has 2 lower case letters
Heterozygous A trait with a dominant allele and a recessive allele (ie: Bb) Also known as a hybrid
Gene A set of instructions (code) for an inherited trait found in the DNA
Alleles Different forms of the same gene - lower case and upper case letters
Phenotype Physical expression of a trait
Genotype Inherited alleles - the code
Probabiltiy The likelihood of possible combinations of offspring
Punnett Square A chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles for offspring
Meiosis A process of cell division that occurs in sex cells (gametes) resulting in 4 daughter cells with 23 chromosomes each. The 4 daughter cells have uniquely different combinations than each other or the parent cell
Mitosis A process of cell division that occurs in body cells (somatic) resulting in 2 daughter cells with 46 chromosomes each (all have identical chromosomes to each other and the parent cell)
Created by: edags