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7th grade Genetics Test

Genetics The scientific study of heredity
Heredity The passing of characteristics/traits from parents to offspring
Genes The code in the DNA that determines what will be passed on to offspring. Coding for a trait.
Inherit Receiving characteristics or traits from parents
Trait A characteristic that is inherited and can be either recessive or dominant
Dominant An observed trait that can be expressed with only 1 allele and will mask a recessive allele if it is present
Recessive An observed trait that need 2 alleles to be present, otherwise the dominant allele will mask the trait and it will not be expressed
Homozygous Has 2 of the same alleles (also known as purebred)
Homozygous Recessive Has 2 lower case letters
Heterozygous A trait with a dominant allele and a recessive allele (ie: Bb) Also known as a hybrid
Alleles Variations of a gene - lower case and upper case letters
Phenotype Physical expression of a trait
Genotype Inherited alleles - the code
Probabiltiy The likelihood of possible combinations of offspring
Punnett Square A chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles for offspring
Meiosis A process of cell division that occurs in sex cells (gametes) resulting in 4 daughter cells with 23 chromosomes each. The 4 daughter cells have uniquely different combinations than each other or the parent cell
Mitosis A process of cell division that occurs in body cells (somatic) resulting in 2 daughter cells with 46 chromosomes each (all have identical chromosomes to each other and the parent cell)
Sex Cells Sperm and egg - Gametes
Chromosomes Organized DNA and proteins - human cells have 46
Crossing Over Chromosomes are lined up in homologous pairs and transfer or exchange genetic information between them. This happens in Prophase I.
Nondisjunction When chromosomes don't separate correctly and a cell receives too ma y or too few chromosomes.
Somatic Cells Body cells
Centromere Holds the chromatids together - also a good way to identify how many chromosomes there are
Diploid Two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Haploid Half the number of original chromosomes
Zygote Fertilized egg.
Created by: edags