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Advanced Biology 16

TermDefinition
Bacteriaphages A virus that infects bacteria.
Transformation A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Virus An infectious particle incapable of replicating outside of a cell, consisting of an RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protein coat (capsid).
Double-Helix The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.
Origin of Replication Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Replication Fork A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where the parental strands are being unwound and new strands are being synthesized.
Primer A short stretch of RNA with a free 3′ end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand and elongated with DNA nucleotides during DNA replication.
DNA Polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA (for example, at a replication fork) by the addition of nucleotides to the 3′ end of an existing chain.
Leading Strand The new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication fork in the mandatory 5′ - 3′ direction.
Lagging Strand A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5′ - 3′ direction away from the replication fork.
Nuclease An enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA, either removing one or a few bases or hydrolyzing the DNA or RNA completely into its component nucleotides.
Telomeres The tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome’s DNA molecule.
Chromatin The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.
Created by: Mr.Devine