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Genetics Vocabulary

TermDefinition
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
asexual formed by, characterized by, or being a process of reproduction (as the dividing of one cell into two cells) that does not involve the combining of male and female germ cells
reproduction the process by which living things produce offspring
gene one set of instructions for an inherited trait
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live
chromesomes in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
dominant trait the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred
recessive trait a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
alleles one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromesomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromesomes
Interphase Longest phase, cell grows, DNA is copied, (Chromesomes are copied.)
Prophase Chromesomes condense from long strands to rod like structures.
Metaphase Nuclear Membrane dissolves. Paired chromatids line up at cells equator.
Anaphase Chromatids separate and move to the opposite sidesof the cell.
Telophase Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromesomes. Chromesomes unwind.
Cytokinesis Cells without a cell wall separate into two new daughter cells.
Created by: hbaldwin849