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chapter 8&10 vocab

TermDefinition
earthquakes vibration of earth
focus point where earthquakes start
seismic waves waves of energy released by the earthquake
epicenter point of earths surface directly above the focus
elastic rebound sudden return of deformed rock back to under formed stage
body waves waves that move through the inside of earth
p waves push pull body waves
s waves side to side body wave
surface waves waves that move on earths surface
seismograph A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
seismogram a record produced by a seismograph.
richter scale The Richter magnitude scale assigns a magnitude number to quantify the size of an earthquake.
moment magnitude scale used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes.
modified mercalli The effect of an earthquake on the Earth's surface is called the intensity.
liquefaction Image result for liquefaction Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress
tsunami lso known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves
seismic gap A seismic gap is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes that has not slipped in an unusually long time
crust the outer layer of earth
mantle layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies
outer core fluid layer about 2,300 km (1,400 mi) thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle. Its outer boundary lies 2,890 km (1,800 mi) beneath Earth's surface.
inner core It is primarily a solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 kilometres
moho the boundary layer between the earth's crust and mantle whose depth varies from about 3 miles
ring of fire The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
hot spot places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle
viscocity the state of being thick, sticky, and semifluid in consistency, due to internal friction.
vent serving as an outlet for air, smoke, fumes,
pyroclastic material Volcanic ash, obsidian, and pumice
volcano volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
crater a large, bowl-shaped cavity in the ground or on the surface of a planet or the moon, typically one caused by an explosion or the impact of a meteorite or other celestial body.
shield volcano a broad, domed volcano with gently sloping sides, characteristic of the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava.
cinder cone cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, cinders, volcanic ash, or scoria that has been built around a volcanic vent.
composite volcano A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash
caldera A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.
lahar a destructive mudflow on the slopes of a volcano.
pluton a body of intrusive igneous rock.
sill laccolith A laccolith is a sheet intrusion (or concordant pluton) that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
dike A body of igneous rock that cuts across the structure of adjoining rock, usually as a result of the intrusion of magma.
batholith A batholith is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust.
Created by: Daytin