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chapter 8 & 10 vocab

earthquake the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy
focus the point within Earth where an earthquake originates
seismic waves waves of energy released by an earthquake
epicenter the location of Earth's surface directly above the focus, or origin, of an earthquake
elastic rebound sudden return of deformed rock back to undeformed shape
body waves seismic waves that move through the inside of earth
P waves earthquake wave that pushes and pulls rocks in the direction of the wave; also known as a compression wave
S waves a seismic wave that shakes particles perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling
surface waves a seismic wave that travels along the surface of Earth
seismograph an instrument that records earthquake waves
seismogram the record made by a seismograph
Richter Scale numerical scale (1-?) based on height of largest seismic wave (magnitude)
Moment Magnitude Scale a more precise measure of earthquake magnitude than the Richter
Modified Mercalli Scale roman numeral scale that measure the intensity created by an earthquake
liquefaction occurs when wet soil acts more like a liquid during an earthquake
tsunami a giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor
seismic gap an area along a fault where there has not been any earthquake activity for a long period of time
crust the thin, rocky outer layer of Earth
mantle the 2890-kilometer-thick layer of Earth located below the crust
outer core layer beneath the mantle
inner core solid innermost layer of Earth
Moho the boundary separating the crust from the mantle, discernible by an increase in the velocity of seismic waves
Ring of Fire zone of active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes that nearly encircles the Pacific Ocean
hot spot area in Earth's mantle where a column of hot magma rises up to melt through the crust, resulting in volcanic activity
viscosity resistance to flow
vent opening to the surface
pyroclastic material particles produced in an explosion
volcano rupture in the Earth's crust where molten lava, hot ash, and gases from the earth crust escape into the air
crater steep-walled depression at summit
shield volcano Hawaiian and Iceland volcano
cinder cone smallest of volcano types
composite volcano alternate layers of lava and pryroclastics
caldera large depression in a volcano
lahar a wet mass of volcanic fragments flowing rapidly downhill
pluton cooled magma structures underground
sill pluton that is parallel to layers
laccolith lense-shaped pluton
dike pluton that cuts through layers
batholith largest pluton
Created by: 2008063