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Human Geo

Ch 10

Define Agriculture Deliberate modification of earths surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain substance/economic gain.
Define Crop Any plant cultivated by people
What was used before AG? hunting and gathering
How many people still hunt and gather today? 1/4 million
Name 3 people and places that still hunt and fish 1. Spinifex- Australia's great Victorian desert 2. Sentinelese- India's Andaman islands 3. Bushmen- Botswana and Namibia
Name the 5 crop hearths and name a crop from each 1. Latin America- squash 2. Sub-Saharan Africa- yam 3. Southwest Asia- Barley 4. East Asia- Rice 5. Southeast Asia- Mango
where is the main animal hearth? Southwest Asia/ Middle east
what are 4 things some animals provide humans? 1. Milk 2. Meat 3. Skin 4. Integrate cultivation of crops
why do people in Mexico eat more maize and people in china eat more rice? Culture preference, level of development, and/or physical conditions.
Latin American gets their largest share of dietary energy from what? Sugar
What is the most important nutrient for growth and maintenance of the human body? Protein
Developed countries eat more what to get more protein? Meat and Poultry
What is the minimum daily calories needed? 1,800
What is the US average daily calorie intake? 3,800
What is the worlds average daily calorie intake? 2,780
What is Sub-Saharan Africa average daily calorie intake? 2,290
What country has the most under-nourished? India
What has happened to African food production/capita? Increased
What are the 2 basic types of AG? Subsistence Ag and Commercial Ag
What type of AG does the US use? Commercial
Which 2 sub-types of AG does MN use? 1. mixed crop and live stock 2. Dairy
What is the average acres of a US farm? 418
The largest ___% of the US farms produce ___% of total US AG 1. 5% 2. 75%
In developed countries __% of people farm but in North America it's ___% 1. 5% 2. 2%
We produce ______ food. From 1900 to 2000 farms dropped in # ____% and farmer by ___%. Why? 1. Surplus 2. 60% 3. 85%
Which type of AG uses machinery? commercial
Shifting cultivation has what 2 other names? 1. slash and burn Ag 2. Swidden
Name 2 groups of people that practice pastoral nomadism Bedouins and Maasai
Where is intensive subsistence AG practiced? East Asia and South Asia
Define wet rice Practicing og planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
Often land is _____ from a hillside Terraud
Define plantation Commercial Ag. in developing regions that specializes in 1 or 2 crops.
Plantations are often owned by who? Europeans and North Americans
Crops grown in Europe and the Americas are primary for what? Sale
What are the 6 types of commercial AG? Dairy farming, grain farming, livestock ranching, commercial gardening and fruit farming, and Mediterranean Ag.
Define milkshed The Ring around a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling.
Define crop rotation Dividing the farm into numbers of fields and each field is planted on a planned cycle.
In Mixed crop and livestock, what are the 2 main crops? Corn and soybeans
What crop is mainly grown in gain farming? wheat
Who mainly consumes wheat? humans
Who is the #1 pork producer? China
Who is the #1 chicken producer? US
Who is the #1 beef producer? US
Commercial gardening and fruit farming is also called what? Truck farming
What are 4 crops grown in commercial gardening and fruit farming? Apples, cherries, lettuce, and tomatoes
What are 4 places mediterranean AG is found? California, Chile, SW South Africa, and SW Australia
Cultivation of seafood is called what? Aquaculture or Aquafarming
____ of ocean fish caught is used for what? 1. 1/3 2. fish meals and to fed poultry and hogs
What country produces the most fish? China
What are the 4 strategies to increase food supply? 1. Expand AG land 2. Increase Ag production 3. Improve food sources 4. Expand exports
Dr. ____ won what for miracle __ seed that started the ___ Revolution? 1. Norman Borlaug 2. rice 3. green 4. Nobel peace prize
___% of US labor force are farmers but ___% work in agribusiness. 1. 2% 2. 20%
What are 3 ways the government tries to excess productive capacity? 1. farmers and encouraged to avoid producing crops that are in excess supply. 2. Government pays farmers when certain commodity prices are low. 3. Government buys surplus production and sells/donates it to foreign governments.
What situations influence industrial location? Transportation- little as possible
Prior to the Ind. Rev. industry was geographically ___ in ___- based 1. dispersed 2. home based
Home-based Industries that are called what? cottage industry
What industry was the first to industrialize? textile
What invention was the most important to development of factories? steam engine
WHat industry benefited first from steam engines? iron
New energy source = what? Coal
new type of transportation = what? railroads
3/4 of the world's manufacturing is in what 3 regions? 1. Europe 2. East Asia 3. North America
What 2 countries are the next leaders of manufacturing outside of the top 3 regions? Brazil and India
When do you locate a factory near its imputs? if cost of transporting the product to the consumers excessed the cost of transporting imputs
When do you locate a factory near its customers? 1. Bulk- gaining industry 2. Single-Market 3. Perishable- Product
What are the 2 main imputs in the steel production? Iron ore and coal
Where did the US steel mills fist concentrate? Pittsburgh
Why did US steel mills shift to around lake Eire in the late 1800s? Discovery of the masabi range
Why did the US steel mills shift to around lake Michigan in the late 1900s? more coal was found
Why did the US steel mills shift to the East and West coast? The US started to use scrape iron and imported it from other countries
What country produced the most steel in 1980? US
What country produces the most steel today? China
Why are most vehicles sold in the country they are made in? It's a bulk-gaining industry
10 carmakers control ___% of the worlds final assembly plants 50
Where is "Auto alley"? between Michigan and Alabama
Who are the Detroit 3? Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors
Where is the Prius made? Japan
Besides pipelines, what are the 4 ways products are transported? 1. Ship 2. Rail 3. Truck 4. Air
The ____ something is transported, the ____ the cost per mile 1. Farther 2. lower
What is the most expensive mode of transport? Airplanes
What mode of transport is for short distances? Trucks
Define Break-of-Bulk point A location where transfer among transportation mode is possible
On average, how far does your food travel? 1,500 miles
Farmers who do commerical AG are in it for what? Money, to buy other things
Farmers who do Subsistence AG are in it for what? To feed their family or to get by.
In countries that don't have the farming machinery, their farms are what? Smaller. Machinery= larger farm size.
half of the US farmers are hobby farms, how much money do they make a year? $10,000 or less
Where is shifting cultivation Ag used? Tropical climates
Where is Pastoral Nomadism used? Aired climates
Pastoral Nomadism = what? moving to where ever theres food
Intensive subsistence Ag does what? Double or triple crop
China uses way more fertalizer on their land compared to what country? The US
Plantation Ag is generally practiced where ______ Ag is at Subsistence Ag
Where is a lot of dairy in the US? Northern US
Most corn is feed to ___ and used for ____ 1. Animals 2. Ethenol
California is the #1 state for ___ and ____ 1. dairy production 2. Ag.
What are the 2 types of wheat? 1. winter wheat (used in the south) 2. Spring wheat (used in the north)
Define Just-In-Time Shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed.
Manufactures are trying to eliminate what? Wasteful inventory
What are 3 disruptions that can result to this delivery method? 1. Labor unrest 2. Traffic 3. Natural Hazards
What are 3 main site factors of an industry? 1. labor 2. land 3. capital
Labor cost on average __% of the overall cost of a product 11%
The average US male worker makes how much yearly? $30,000 and above
US male workers get what kind of benefits from their jobs? health care, retirement pensions, and other benefits
The average worker in a less developed country earns what yearly? less than $5,000
Textile and apparel production is an example of _____ - intensive industry labor
What is the #1 natural fiber used? Cotton
What country produces most of the worlds woven cotton fabric? China
2/3 of what are sown in developed countries? Women's blouse's
What region of the US lost manufacturing jobs and what regions gained them between 1950-2009? Lost-North and East Gained-South and West
define right-to-work required a factory to maintain a so called open shot and prohibits a closed shop
define closed shop company and a union agree that everyone must join the union to work in the factory
define open shop union and a company may not negotiate a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
what trade agreement helped US manufacturing move to Mexico? North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
What does BRIC stand for? Brazil, Russia, India, and China
When is china's GDP expected to surpass the USA? 2027
What is Americas top 4 most eaten meats? 1. Chicken 2. Beef 3. Pork 4. Turkey
Truck farming = what kind of farming Urban farming
T/F: The US has more aired-able land than any other True
T/F: There are still cottages industries today True
Most industries are concentrated, which means what? It makes them a military target
At the beginning of the industrial revolution, what direction did it spread? West to East
Masabi= what Big man
In the US, immigrants are doing ___ in factories most of the work
What are the top 4 countries that makes the most stuff? 1. China 2. US 3. Japan 4. Germany
Trump is trying to renegotiate what? NAFTA
Created by: jayceyhillesheim