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Genetics Vocab

Vocab necessary to understand Mendel's genetics

Genotype The genetic code of an organism represented by two alleles; 3 genotypes (homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, heterozygous)
Phenotype The physical appearance of an organism based on its genotype (eye color, height, seed shape, etc)
Punnett Square A tool to solve genetic problems mathematically; determines the probability of the genotypes and phenotypes of offspring
Recessive An expression of a gene that is masked by a dominant allele; represented by a lowercase letter; This trait only appears when both alleles are present.
Homozygous (Pure/True-breeding) A genotype with the same two alleles (both dominant OR both recessive)
Heterozygous (hybrid) A genotype with two different alleles (one dominant and one recessive)
Allele An expression of a gene; may be dominant or recessive; there are 2 alleles for every gene
Probability The likelihood that an even will occur
Dihybrid Cross A cross between 2 individuals with two traits (ex. flower color, plant height)
Monohybrid Cross A cross between 2 individuals with one trait (ex. flower color)
Dominant Describes an expression of a gene that is always expressed because it covers up the recessive form; represented by a capital letter
Law of Dominance Mendel's law stating that when two alleles of an inherited pair is heterozygous, then, the allele that is expressed is dominant whereas the allele that is not expressed is recessive
Law of Segregation Mendel's law stating that two copies of each gene are separated during meiosis when gametes are formed. Since organisms inherit 2 copies of each gene (one from each parent), only one copy of each gene can be donated to offspring;
Law of Independent Assortment Mendel's law stating that alleles separate independently of each other during meiosis, which means different traits appear to be inherited separately. In other words, the presence of one trait does not affect the presence of another trait.
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