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Ch. 7 Science Vocab

TermDefinition
reactant a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
chemical energy the energy released when a chemical compound reacts to produce new compounds
exothermic reaction a chemical reaction in which energy is released to the surroundings as heat
endothermic reaction a chemical reaction that requires energy input
chemical equation a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
mole ratio the relative number of moles of the substances required to produce a given amount of product in a chemical reaction
synthesis reaction a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
decomposition reaction a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
combustion reaction the oxidation reaction of an organic compound, in which heat is released
single-displacement reaction a reaction in which one element or radical takes the place of another element or radical in a compound
double-displacement reaction a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound forms from the apparent exchange of atoms or ions between two compounds
free radical an atom or a group of atoms that has one unpaired electron
oxidation-reduction reaction any chemical change in which one species is oxidized (loses electrons) and another species is reduced (gains electrons); also called redox reaction
catalyst a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed significantly
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions (241)
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
chemical equilibrium a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentrations of products and reactants remain unchanged
Created by: Parker Skedel