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Chapter 6 Nutrition

what are large, complex molecules found in the cells of all living things? proteins
what are nitrogen containing molecules that combine to form proteins? amino acids
which amino acids are NOT produced by the body that must be obtained from the food? essential amino acids
when two amino acids join together, the amine group of one binds to the acid group of another in a unique type of chemical bond peptide
during what phase does the mRNA copy the genetic information from DNA in the nucleus? Transcription
Conversion of genetic information in RNA to assemble amino acids in the proper sequence to synthesize a protein on the ribosome Translation
What are the four levels of a protein structure? Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure
Proteins lose shape (denaturation) when subjected to? Heat, acids and bases, heavy metals, alcohol
What happens in a irreversible loss in protein function? Denaturation
What is another name for a "high quality" protein? Complete protein
What is considered a "low quality" protein? Incomplete protein
Pancreatic enzymes called what completes the digestion of proteins into single amino acids? Proteases
Who require more protein? Children, adolescent, pregnant or lactating women, athletes, vegetarians
For ________ __________ to occur, all essential amino acids must be available to the cell Protein synthesis
Our red blood cells live for only __________ months and then are replaced by new cells 3-4
How long do the cells lining our intestinal tract live before they are replaced? 3-6 days
What happens with the "old" intestinal cells when our body replaces them with new ones? They are digested and the amino acids are absorbed back into the body
The _____ of a protein determines its function Shape
When a particular essential amino acid is unavailable, what can't not occur? Protein synthesis
What is an amino acid hormone that plays a critical role in the regulation of sleep? Melatonin
The body goes into a state called _______ when the blood becomes to acidic. Acidosis
Protein sources include much more than just meat they also include? Legumes, nuts, "new foods"
What percent of total energy intake should be from protein? 10-35%
What is the RDA of protein per kilogram of body weight per day? 0.8 grams
The risks of too much dietary protein include what diseases? High cholesterol, heart disease and kidney disease
What occurs if the blood becomes too basic (alkaline) Alkalosis
What are examples of common electrolytes? Sodium & potassium
Electrically charged atoms that assist in maintaining fluid balance Electrolytes
Special proteins that are critical to immune function Antibodies
What is each antibody designed to do? Destroy one specific invader
Fat cannot be converted into _________, but body proteins can be broken down and converted into ______to provide needed energy to the brain (same answer for both blanks) Glucose
What highly specialized procedure referred to as ________ _________ is used to determine a person's protein needs? Nitrogen balance
Needed for periods of growth, pregnancy, recovery from illness, or protein deficiency Positive nitrogen balance
Results from starvation, consumption of very low energy diets, severe illness, infections, serious urns or injuries Negative nitrogen balance
Found in healthy adults who are not pregnant Nitrogen balance
Three disorders that are linked in some research to high protein intakes are? Bone loss, kidney disease, and coronary heart disease
What diseases that can follow protein-calorie malnutrition? Marasmus & kwashiorkor
The consequences of marasmus are? Wasting and weakening of muscles, stunted brain development learning impairment. Anemia
What are the symptoms of kwashiorkor disease? Retarded growth Weight loss Development of sores Dry brittle hair
What kind of vegetarian diet eats eggs, vegetables, grains, nuts, fruit, legumes and dairy products? Lacto-ovovegetarian
What kind of vegetarian diet eats vegetables, grains, nuts, fruits, legumes and dairy products? Lacto-vegetarian
Only eats raw or dried fruit, seeds, nuts, honey and vegetable oil Fruitarian
Only plant-based foods Vegan
Why do people choose Vegetarianism? Religious, ethical, food-safety reasons, health benefits, ecological benefits,
Created by: Bcarson0326