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Chapter 5 nutrition

made up of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids Triglyceride
long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to hydrogen atoms Fatty acids
consist of a glycerol backbone with two fatty acids and a compound that contains phosphate Phospholipids
fats and oils are two forms of lipid compounds that are insoluble in water
triglycerides can be classified by what three things their chain length, their level of saturation, their shape
a fatty acid chain has no carbons bonded together with a double bond saturated fatty acid
the fat molecule has more than one double bond, it contains even less hydrogen polyunsaturated fatty acid
lack of hydrogen at one part of the molecule monounsaturated fatty acid
the hydrogen atoms are attached on diagonally opposite sides of the double carbon bond trans fatty acid
has both hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond cis fatty acid
the degree of hydrogenation can make an oil more or less saturated, resulting in a partially hydrogenated oil (PHO)
developed in the early 1900s to produce a type of cheap fat that could be stored in a solid form and will resist rancidity hydrogenation
when our body needs types of fatty acids having a double bond close to the omega end, it has to obtain them from the foods we eat. essential fatty acids
one omega-6 fatty acid essential to human health linoleic acid
the most common omega-3 in our diet alpha-linolenic acid
two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish eicosapentaenoic acid. docosahexaenoic acid
fatty acids that have a double bond six carbons from the omega end omega-6 fatty acids
fatty acids with a double bond three carbons from the omega end omega-3 fatty acids
what percent of energy we use comes from fat? 30-70%
potent regulators of cellular function eicosanoids
what are critical components of every cell membrane? phospholipids, cholesterol, fatty acids
what provides flavor and texture to foods? Fat
the AMDR for fat is what percent of total energy intake? 20-35%
added to processed or prepared foods to improve texture or taste which we may not be aware of, or that occur naturally hidden fats
of the 20 amino acids used by the human body, how many are considered essential? 9
what are organs of the GI tract? mouth, stomach, small intestine
what are the accessory organs of the GI tract? salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
what fats help transport the fat-soluble vitamins into the body and help regulate cell function and maintain membrane integrity? Dietary fats
the majority of lipid digestion takes place in what organ? small intestine
a spherical compound in which the fat clusters in the center and phospholipids lipoprotein
the specific lipoprotein produced in the enterocyte to transport fat from a meal chylomicron
what is the primary storage site for triglycerides and is the only body cell with significant fat-storage capacity? Adipose cell
how does the fat get out of the chylomicrons in the bloodstream and into body cells with the help of an enzyme lipoprotein lipase
this shows you how to calculate the amount of fat hidden in packaged foods Nutrition label activity
we can easily see what we're adding and approximately how much visible fats
you should consume what percent of energy from carbohydrates? 55-60%
what percent of energy from proteins should you consume? 12-15%
what is the AI for linoleic acid per day in adult men? 14-17 grams
what is the AI for linoleic acid per day in adult women? 11-12 grams
the recommended intake of saturated fats is less than what percent of total energy? 10%
fatty acids are thought to increase what risk of what disease? cardiovascular disease
caused by a blockage of one of the blood vessels supplying the brain cerebrovascular disease
a disease in which arterial walls accumulate deposits of lipids and scar tissue that build up to such a degree that they impair blood flow atherosclerosis
a general term used to refer to any abnormal condition involving dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels cardiovascular disease
is one of the major chronic disease in the united states? hypertension
Created by: Bcarson0326