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Biology Midterm Exam

What is the purpose of science? To study the natural world and explain the nature of things (Ex. how things work)
What is a scientific theory? A theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon that has been supported by many observations and experiments over time.
What would happen if new evidence contradicted a theory? The theory would have to be revised to fit the new evidence.
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data? Quantitative deals with numbers or quantities Qualitative deals with descriptions of observations by our senses (Ex. what does it look like?)
What is an inference? Combining what you know with what you have learned to draw a logical conclusion
What are controls? Controls are used for comparison and are not exposed to the experimental factor
What are independent variables? Independent variables are the tested factor, or what the scientist is manipulating in his/her experiment
What are dependent variables? Dependent variables are the data, or the results that depend on the changes to the independent variable
What are the eight characteristics of life? • Made of one or more cells • Displays organization • Grows and develops • Reproduces • Responds to stimuli • Requires energy • Maintains homeostasis • Adaptations evolve over time
What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors? Biotic (living) Abiotic (nonliving)
What is a food chain? Food chains show a simplified single path for energy flow through an ecosystem
What is a food web? Food webs show many interconnected food chains and pathways for energy flow throughout the ecosystem
What do food chains and food webs show? They show predator/prey and parasitic relationships *Remember the arrow points in the direction of energy flow (towards who is doing the eating)
What happens if 2 species have overlapping niches? Competition - usually with one species being the winner (lives) and the other being the loser (dies)
What is exponential growth? Exponential is unlimited growth
What is logistic growth? Logistic has limiting factors that make the population curve level off at carrying capacity
What type of biome has the greatest diversity of plant life? Tropical rainforests *Typically, the closer you get to the equator, the more diversity of life
In the nitrogen cycle? what organism converts atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by living things? Bacteria
In the phosphorus cycle, where is most of the phosphorus stored in the environment? Rocks
Excess nutrient runoff, like from agriculture or factories, can cause what disruption in bodies of water downstream? Harmful algae blooms
What is a chemical compound? When two or more elements chemically combine, such as H2O or CO2
What are the three parts of an atom? (And their charges and location) • Neutron - neutral in nucleus • Proton - positive in nucleus • Electron - negative orbits around nucleus
What is a covalent bond? A chemical bond in which electrons are shared
What element do all organic molecules contain? Carbon
What are the four main classes of biological macromolecules? • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids
What are lipids and what are they made up of? • Fats, oils, and waxes • Made up of fatty acids • Long term energy storage and waterproof coating
What type of macromolecule is a starch such as glycogen? What monomer is it make up of? • Carbohydrate- made up of simple sugars or monosaccharides • Glycogen is broken down into glucose for energy
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid? What are two examples? • Nucleotide • DNA and RNA
What are the products (substrates) and reactants in chemical reactions? Reactants > products
What is activation energy? How does lowering the activation energy affect a chemical reaction? • The amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction • Lowering the activation energy makes the reaction happen easier or quicker - enzymes do this
What are enzymes? What is meant by the “lock and key” model? • Proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy • One enzyme for one specific reaction - they aren’t interchangeable
Know the differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
What is the function of the nucleus? Holds DNA
What is the function for the rough er? Transportation for proteins made at ribosomes
What is the function of mitochondria? Converts glucose into energy (ATP)
What is the function of the lysosome? Cleans old worn-out parts of the cell
What are the functions of the chloroplast? Site of photosynthesis and converts sun’s energy into glucose
What is the function of the cilia and flagella? For movement (or movement of stuff outside of the cell)
What are the principles of cell theory?
• Organisms are made of one or more cells • Cells are the basic unit of life • Cells come from pre- existing cells
What happens to cells in hypotonic solutions? Cell swells
What happens to cells in hypertonic solutions? Cell shrinks
What happens to cells in isotonic solutions? Nothing - stays same
What are examples and characteristics of passive transport? • No energy • High > low • With the gradient — Diffusion — Facilitated diffusion — Osmosis
What are examples and characteristics of active transport? • Require energy (ATP) • Low > high • Against the gradient — Pumps — Exocytosis — Endocytosis
Know the fluid mosaic model and how phospholipids and other substances move around within the plasma membrane
What molecule is the energy source for cells? ATP
What macromolecule that we eat an broken down to make ATP? • Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars such as glucose • Glycogen is the form of carbohydrate stored in your body that can break down into glucose
What is the chemical equation that represents photosynthesis? CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2
What organelle is the site of photosynthesis and why is it found primarily in leaves? • Chloroplasts • Leaves have a large surface area exposed to the sunlight
What is the pigment that captures sunlight during photosynthesis? Chlorophyll
What is the chemical equation that represents cellular respiration? C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
What is the relationship between the products and reactants in those two equations? • Opposites • The reactants of one are the products of the other
What are three factors that limit cell size? • Getting enough nutrients • Expelling enough wastes • Transport of substances (High surface area to volume ratio in small cells is beneficial)
Describe the main events that occur during interphase. • Growth and normal cell functions • DNA replication • Checking DNA and preparing to divide
What happens during mitosis? What happens during each stage? (PMAT) •Prophase – nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes condense. Spindle begins to form •Metaphase – chromosomes line in middle •Anaphase – sister chromatids pulled apart •Telophase – sister chromatids arrive at poles and new nuclear mem
What is cancer? • Uncontrolled cell cycle • Rapidly dividing cells
What are sister chromatids? The two sides of the chromosome that contain identical copies of DNA, held together at the centromere
What is chromatin? Relaxed version of DNA in interphase
What are chromosomes? Condensed version of tightly coiled and packed DNA that moves around during cell division
What makes the chromosomes line up at the equator or move around during mitosis? Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres and pull on chromosomes to move them where they need to go
How many chromosomes are in the two resulting daughter cells after mitosis and cytokinesis? • The same number as the original cell • In mitosis, the daughter cells are genetically identical to the original call, therefore if the original cell had 14 chromosomes, the daughter cells have 14 chromosomes
What is the main function of mitosis? To create identical cells to repair damaged cells or for organism growth
Created by: emconner