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68WM6 Bones

QuestionAnswer
Abduction Movement of a body part AWAY from the midline.(abduct=to take away)
Adduction Movement of a body part TOWARD the midline.
Articular Cartilage Hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones in synovial joints.
Circumduction Movement of a body part, such as limb, so that the end follows a circular path.
Compact Bone Dense tissue in which cells are organized in osteons (haversian system) with no spaces.
Condyle A rounded process of a bone, usually forming a joint.
Crest A ridgelike projection of a bone.
Diaphysis The shaft of a long bone.
Endochondral Bones bone that begins as hyaline cartilage that is subsequently replaced by bone tissue.
Endosteum Tissue lining the medullary cavity within a bone.
Epicondyle A projection of bone above a condyle.
Epiphyseal Plate Cartaginous layer within the long bone epiphysis that grows.
Epiphyses The end of a long bone.
Eversion Outward turning movement of the foot so that the sole faces laterally.
Extension Movement increasing the angle between parts at a joint.
Flexion Bending at a joint that decreases the angle between bones.
Fontanel Membranous region between certain cranial bones in the skull of a fetus or infant.
Foramen An opening, usually in a bone o r membrane.
Fossa A depression in a bone or other part.
Hematopoiesis The production of blood cells from dividing stem and progenitor cells.
Intramembranous Bones Bone that forms from membrane like layers of primitive connective tissues.
Levers A simple mechanical device consisting of a rod, fulcrum, wieght, and a source of energy that is applied to some point on the rod.
Marrow Connective tissue in spaces within bones that includes blood forming stem and progenitor cells.
Medullary Cavity A cavity containing marrow within the diaphysis of a long bone.
Osteoclasts A cell that erodes bone.
Osteocytes A mature bone cell.
Osteoblasts A bone forming cell.
Periosteum A fibrous connective tissue covering on the surface of a bone.
Process A prominent bone projection.
Pronation Turning the palm of the hand downward while the forearm is parallel to the ground.
Protraction A forward movement of a body part.
Retraction Movement of a part toward the back.
Rotation Movement turning a body part on its longitudinal axis.
Sinus A cavity or space in a bone, or other body part.
Spongy Bone Bone that consists of bars and plates separated by irregular spaces; cancellous bone.
Supination Turning the palm of the hand upward while the forearm is parallel to the ground.
Suture An immovable joint.
Trochanter A broad process (prominent bone projection) on a bone.
Tubercle A small, rounded process on a bone.
Tuberosity An elevation or protuberance on a bone.
What is the purpose of bones? To provide a rigid framework and support structure for the whole body.
Bones are a safety deposit box for _____. Calcium
Bone tissue contains lesser amounts of: MagnesiumSodiumPotassiumCarbonate Ions
The two types of bone marrow are? Red and Yellow
What are the different types of bones? LongShortFlatIrregular
Compact Bone (cortical bone) Hard, dense tissue in which cells are organized in osteons with no spaces.
Function of Compact Bones Provides strength and resistance to bending.The wall of the diaphysis is mainly composed of compact bone.
When does bone formation begin? The first few weeks of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood.
Intramembranous Bone Formation Develop from layers of connective tissue.Most simple and direct form of ossification.Skull bones and clavicles are formed in this manner.
Endochondral Bone Formation Develops first as hyaline cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue.All other bones are formed in this manner.
The human skeleton has two divisions they are: Axial and Appendicular
Axial Skeleton Consists of bony and cartilaginious parts that support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk.
Appendicular Skeleton Consists of the bones in the upper and lower limbs and the bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton.
How many bones are in the skull? 22 Bones (8 Cranial Bones and 14 Facial Bones)
Frontal Bone Anterior portion of the skull above the eyes.
Paretial Bones One parietial bone is located on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone.
Occipital Bone Forms the back of the skull and the base of the cranium.
Temporal Bones Form parts of the side and the base of the cranium.
Sphenoid Bone Forms the central part of the floor of the cranium.
Ethmoid Bone Form part of the roof of the nasal cavity.
Sutures: Joints between the 8 cranial bones.
Sagittal: midline between the two parietal bones.
Coronal: between the frontal bone and the parietal bones.
Lambdoidal: between the occipital and parietal bones.
Squamosal: between the temporal and parietal bones.
Facial Skeleton: Thirteen immovable bones and a moveable lower jawbone.
Facial Skeleton: Form the basic shape of the face and provide attachments for muscles.
Facial bones include: Maxillae.Palatine.Zygomatic.Lacrimal.Nasal.Vomer.Inferior nasal conchae.Mandible.
Infantile skull: *Incompletely developed, with fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones. *These membranous areas are called fontanels (soft spots).
Vertebral Column: Consist of 26 vertebrae, separated by intervertebral disks.
Vertebral Column: Extends from the base of the skull into the pelvic girdle.
The vertebral column is divided into five different sections: CervicalThoracicLumbarSacrumCoccyx
Cervical Vertebrae Consist of 7 vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae Consist of 12 vertebrae.
True or false? Thoracic vertebrae are larger than cervical vertebrae. TRUE!!!
Lumbar Vertebrae Consist of 5 vertebrae.
Sacrum Triangular structure, composed of five fused vertebrae.
Coccyx The lowest part of the vertebral column.Composed of four fused vertebrae.
Thoracic Cage: Contains 12 pairs of ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and costal cartilages.
This protects visceral organs and plays a role in breathing. Thoracic Cage
Sternum: Located midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cage.
Sternum the flat, elongated bone develops in three parts: Manubrium: the top portion. Articluates with the clavicles by facets on its superior border.Body: the middle portion. Xiphoid process: the bottom portion.
Pectoral Girdle: Composed of two clavicles and two scapulae. Forms an incomplete ring that supports the upper limbs and is an attachment for several muscles that move them.
Clavicles: Located horizontally between the manubrium and the scapulae.Function is to hold the shoulders in place and provide attachments for the muscles of the upper limbs, chest and back.
Scapulae: Broad, triangular bones.The spine divides the posterior surface of each scapula into unequal portions.
Humerus: Extends from the glenoid cavity of the scapula to the elbow.Second largest bone in the body.Articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow.
Radius: Extends from the elbow to the wrist and crosses over the ulna when the hand is turned so that the palm faces backward.Articulates with the humerus, ulna, and wrist.
Ulna: Longer than the radius and overlaps the end of the humerus posteriorly.At the proximal end, articulates with the humerus.At the distal end, articulates with the radius laterally and with a disk of fibrocartilage inferiorly.
Hand: Composed of 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, and 5 sets of phalanges.
Carpal Bones: Eight small carpal bones are firmly bound in two rows of four bones called the carpus.
Pelvic Girdle Consists of two coxae bones that articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly.
These form the bowl shaped pelvis. The sacrum, coccyx, and pelvic girdle.
Femur: Longest bone in the body and extends from the hip to the knee.
Patella kneecap
Foot: consists of 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatarsal bones, and 5 sets of phalanges.
Cartilaginous Joint Cartilaginous joints allow limited movement.Connected by disks of fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage.Vertebrae connected to each other by fibrocartilage as are the two pubis bones.
Synovial Joints Most joints in the skeletal system, which allow free movement.
Synovial joints are classified as: Ball and Socket.Condyloid.Gliding.Hinge.Pivot.Saddle.
Ball-and-Socket Joint Ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with the cup-shaped socket of another. (i.e. shoulder & hip joints)
Created by: NurseMaryK