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Sem 1 Final

Semester 1 Final Exam

the main unit and tool for length meter, meterstick/ruler
the main unit and tool for volume liter, graduated cylinder
the main unit and tool for mass gram, balance/scale
what cell parts are found in plant cells only? cell wall and chloroplasts
How are vacuoles different in plant and animal cells? Plant cells usually have one large vacuole for storing water, Animal cells have multiple smaller ones.
Do plant and animal cells have a cell membrane? Yes. In plant cells the cell membrane is usually pushed up against the cell wall (so it isn't visible).
____ is the central portion of the cell, it contains DNA which controls the cells activities nucleus
The flexible boundary of the cell is the _____. It controls which substances enter and leave the cell cell membrane
The _______ is a rigid outer cell boundary that provides support to the plant. cell wall
The jelly-like filler of the cells is called _____. cytoplasm
____ are small, round, green organelles that capture sunlight for photosynthesis (plants only) chloroplasts
Sac-like structures that can store water, food or waste are caleld _____. vacuoles
_____ are oval-shaped structures that break down nutrients for the cell to have energy. mitochondria
_____ are small structures that make proteins. ribosomes
What happens to a cell in salt water? Water will leave the cell. You saw this in lab with Elodea, in which the cell membrane pulled away from the cell wall. This leaves the organelles bunched in the middle.
What does the cell theory state? all living things are made of one or more cells; cells are the basic unit of structure AND function; all cells come from pre-existing cells
an opening between two guard cells stoma (plural = stomata)
a pair of sausage/oval shaped cells on lower surface of most leaves that control formation of stomata guard cells
process by which chlorophyll containing cells (chloroplasts) trap and use energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water into glucose for food, releasing oxygen as a waste product photosynthesis
food produced through photosynthesis, stored in the plant cells until needed glucose
tightly packed cells under the upper epidermis that contains lots of chloroplasts for photosynthesis palisade cells
loose area of cells under the palisades, providing room for gasses to travel within the leaf spongy layer
What are the ingredients for photosynthesis? energy from sunlight, water from roots, carbon dioxide from air (and chloroplasts in leaf cells)
What is formed during photosynthesis? glucose and oxygen
What comes in stomata? carbon dioxide
What goes out stomata? water and oxygen
An indicator used to detect the presence of carbon dioxide Bromothymol blue (BTB)
A series of reactions in which glucose is "burned" with oxygen to release ENERGY to be stored for life activities cellular respiration
What are the reactants (ingredients) of cellular respiration? oxygen and glucose
What are the products of cellular respiration? energy, carbon dioxide and water
Where does respiration occur? In the mitochondria of all cells.
How does ventilation (breathing) relate to cellular respiration? Inhalation delivers oxygen to the body, which can be used for respiration. The waste carbon dioxide produced by the body during respiration is expelled during exhalation.
the common pigment in plants chlorophyll
what colors of light does chlorophyll absorb mostly red and blue, since green is reflected
What is the a small molecule produced by cellular respiration that acts as energy currency for the cell ATP
movement of substances (due to random motion of molecules) from high to low concentration resulting in them spreading out to a more equal concentration diffusion
what is osmosis? diffusion of water across a membrane
What happens if a cell is surrounded by a solution that has LESS water than on the inside? the water will leave the cell - it will shrink
What happens if a cell is surrounded by a solution that has MORE water than on the inside? the water will enter the cell - it will swell
what are examples of chemical changes? baking soda and vinegar; sunset in a bag; elephant's toothpaste (hydrogen peroxide breaking apart)
what is a Chemical Change? a change when one or more substances form new substances; also resulting in new properties
what is a chemical reaction? a specific example of a chemical change
What are signs of a chemical reaction? color change, odor change, production of a gas or precipitate, release of heat/energy or absorption of heat/energy
a reaction that absorbs heat energy endothermic
a reaction that releases heat energy exothermic
what is a Physical Change? a change in appearance of a substance, but it stays the same substance, such as boiling, ripping, melting or dissolving
substances that form during the chemical reaction product
substances that react chemically reactant
a substances that is dissolved IN another solute
a mixture in which the two substances are indistinguishable (one or more substances are completely dissolved in another) solution
a substance that is dissolving another, usually water solvent
Smallest unit of matter atom
atoms of two or more elements chemically joined compound
has all identical atoms element
multiple elements and/or compounds physically not chemically joined mixture
A single unit of a pure substance (elements or compounds) molecule
Examples of compounds CO2, H2O, glucose, NaCl (salt)
6 kingdoms archaebacteria, eubacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
smallest unit of a living thing; building blocks of life cells
how are eukaryotic cells different than prokaryotic cells? E. have a nucleus, P. do not
What are characteristics of ALL living things? growth and development; response to stimuli, reproduce, use energy and are made of cell(s)
maintaining a life supporting system; keeping a steady internal environment (know if an example of this) homeostasis
levels of classification (in order) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species
What are correct levels of organization in an organism from smallest to largest? (molecule)--> cell--> tissue--> organ--> organ system--> organism
an organism that makes its own food through photosynthesis producer
response a reaction to a stimulus
species one type of an organisms; can interbreed and have fertile offspring
stimulus a change in the environment that causes a response
temp, food, oxygen, water examples of variables that affect an organism's ability to stay alive, must be "maintained"
What are three parts of a conclusion? CER - Claim, Evidence and Reasoning
What goes in a claim? the direct answer to the experimental question
What is the evidence? data and observations that support the claim
What goes in reasoning? scientific explanation for why those results happen
Created by: doakes27