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George Long ANT 2511

George Long ANT 2511 Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Hominidae The taxonomic family to which humans belong; also includes other, now extinct, bipedal relatives
Hominids Colloquial term for members of the family Hominidae, which includes all bipedal hominoids back to the divergence from African great apes
Bipedalism On two feet; walking habitually on two legs.
Evolution A change in the genetic structure of a population. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species
Adaptation An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specifically, as a result of natural selection).
Microevolution Small genetic changes that occur within a species. A human example is the variation seen in the different ABO blood types
Macroevolution Large-scale changes that occur in populations only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation)
Culture Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles.A set of learned behaviors transmit from one generation to the next through learning and not by biological/genetic mechanisms
Behavior Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli;response of an individual, group, or species to environment. Responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren't necessarily the result of conscious decision making
Anthropology The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.
Ethnography Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western society
Ethnology Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western society
Artifacts Objects or materials made or modified for use by hominids. The earliest artifacts tend to be tools made of stone or occasionally bone.
Paleoanthropology The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominids, their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, etc.
Genetics The study of gene structure and action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
Primatology The study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates (prosimians, monkeys, and apes).
Osteology The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development.
Paleopathology The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal (or, occasionally, mummified) remains from archaeological sites
forensic anthropology An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters. Forensic anthropologists work with coroners, police, and others in identifying and analyzing human remains
science A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation; from the Latin scientia, meaning knowledge
Empirical Relying on experiment or observation; from the Latin empiricus, meaning experienced
Scientific Method An approach to research whereby a question is asked, a hypothesis (or provisional explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data
Hypothesis A provisional explanation of a phenomenon. Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing
Ethnocentric Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one's own culture. Ethnocentrism often results in other cultures being seen as inferior to one's own.
Relativistic Viewing entities as they relate to something else. Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts and that they shouldn't be judged through comparison with one's own culture.
Fixity of Species The notion that species, once created, can never change; an idea diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution
Binomial Nomenclature In taxonomy, the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species. For example, Homo sapiens refers to human beings
Taxonomy The branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
Catastrophism The view that the earth's geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events. Cuvier promoted this view, especially in opposition to Lamarck
Uniformitarianism Theory that the earth's features are result of long-term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in past. Elaborated on by Lyell, this theory opposed catastrophism and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time
Reproductive Success The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age; an individual's genetic contribution to the next generation
Selective Pressures Forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals
Genetics The study of gene structure and action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change
Nucleus A structure (organelle) found in all eukaryotic cells. The nucleus contains chromosomes (nuclear DNA)
Somatic Cells All the cells in the body except gametes (eggs and sperm).
Gametes Reproductive cells (eggs and sperm in animals), developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes
DNA Molecule (deoxyribonucleic acid) The double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code, a set of instructions for producing bodily structures and functions. DNA is a main component of chromosomes
Nucleotide Basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four DNA bases
Human Genome Project An international effort aimed at sequencing and mapping the entire human genome, completed in 2003.
Protein Synthesis The assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules. The process is directed by DNA
Protein Three-dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules
Amino Acid Molecule Small molecules that are the components of proteins
Gene A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein, a portion of a protein, or any functional product. A gene may be made up of hundreds or thousands of DNA bases organized into coding and noncoding segments
Regulatory Genes Genes that code for the production of proteins that can bind to DNA and modify the action of genes. Many are active only during certain stages of development
Homebox or Hox Genes (Hox genes) An evolutionarily ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues
Chromosomes Discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei of cells. Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division
Autosomes All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes In mammals, the X and Y chromosomes
Mitosis Simple cell division; the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells
Meiosis Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and testes. Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes. These cells can develop into gametes
Recombination Sometimes called crossing over; the exchange of genetic material between partner chromosomes during meiosis
Polymearse Chain Reaction (PCR) A method of producing thousands of copies of a DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase
Recombinant DNA A process in which genes from the cell of one species are transferred to somatic cells or gametes of another species
Cloning Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism. The term may also be used in referring to genetically identical DNA segments, molecules, and cells.
Human Genome Project An international effort aimed at sequencing and mapping the entire human genome, completed in 2003
Principle of segregation Genes occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs. During gamete prod., the members of each pair separate, so that each gamete contains 1 member of each pair. During fert., the full number of chrom. is restored, and members of gene pairs reunited
Dominance Describing a trait governed by an allele that can be expressed in the presence of another, different allele. Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes. (This is the definition of complete dominance)
Recessive Describing a trait that isn't expressed in heterozygotes; also refers to the allele that governs the trait. For a recessive allele to be expressed, there must be two copies of it (i.e., the individual must be homozygous)
Locus The position on a chromosome where a given gene occurs. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with gene, but this usage is technically incorrect.
Heterozygous Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a chromosome pair
Homozygous Having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a chromosome pair
Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual. Genotype can refer to an organism's entire genetic makeup or to the alleles at a particular locus
Phenotype The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism; the detectable expressions of genotypes
Mendelian Type Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus. Examples include many blood types, such as ABO. Many genetic disorders, including sickle-cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease, are also Mendelian traits
Codominance The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes. In this situation, neither allele is dominant or recessive; thus, both influence the phenotype
Polygenic Traits Referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci. Examples of such traits are stature, skin color, and eye color. Many polygenic traits are also influenced by environmental factors.
Microevolution Small genetic changes that occur within a species. A human example is the variation seen in the different ABO blood types
Macroevolution Large-scale changes that occur in populations only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation).
Gene Flow Exchange of genes between populations
Genetic Drift Evolutionary changes that is, changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors. Genetic drift is a result of small population size.
Founder Effect A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remnants of, larger populations
Sickle-cell Allele A severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen. It results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allele. This mutation is caused by a single base substitution in the DNA
Population Within a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found
Created by: Gutter23