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Lipids - Fats and Oi

Lipids - Fats and Oils

Why are fats essential? Energy storage Vitamin transportation Protection of organs (fats form the cell membrane structure of internal fatty tissues) Regulate Body temperature
Explain the 3 groups of saturated fatty acids and name each one within the groups? Short Chain 2-5 links 2 – acetic 3 - propionic 4 - butyric 5 - valeric Medium Chain 6-12 links 6- caproic 8 – caprylic 10 – capric 12 - lauric Long Chain 14 -18 links 14 – myristic 16 – palmitic 18 - stearic
Why are medium chain fatty acids a part of and why is that substance important in the health world? MCT Oil – Medium chain triglyceride oil. This fat can be absorbed directly by the digestive tract. Specifically caproic and caprylic.
What are the characteristics of saturated fatty acids? Fully saturated with hydrogen Less interactive with other molecules in body Stabilizes cell membranes Not easily susceptible to damage
What are the characteristics of UNsaturated fatty acids? Not fully saturated with hydrogen Allow cells to communicate with surroundings Flexible cell membranes Easily susceptible to damage
How can unsaturated fatty acids become damaged? Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonded hotspots which interact easily with free radicals. Light heat and oxygen help increase the potential to be damaged, the process of this damage is called lipid peroxidation.
How can you prevent damage of unsaturated fatty acids? Peroxidation can be prevented by adding BHA (butalayted hydroxyanisole) or BHT (buyalayted hydroxytoluene).
Explain the difference between PUFA and MUFA PUFA is polyunsaturated fatty acid meaning there are multiple spots where hydrogen has been removed, MUFA is a monounsaturated fatty acid that only has one spot where hydrogen has been removed.
What is hydrogenation and why is it dangerous? When hydrogen gas is heated under an unsaturated fat and hydrogen is inserted into the hotspots, making it saturated. It is dangerous as it alters the fat and makes the fat more susceptible to free radicals.
Name the monounsaturated fatty acid and give example Oleic 18 1 Olive oil, canola oil
Name the poly omega 6 fatty acids and give example Linoleic 18 2 Safflower oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil grapeseed oil Gamma-linolenic 18 3 Borage oil, evening primrose oil, black currant oil, human milk, fungi Arachidonic 20 4 Beef fat, egg yolk
Name the poly omega 3 fatty acids and give example Alpha-linolenic 18 3 Flaxseed, pumpkin seed, help seed, walnut Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 20 5 Fish oil Docosahexanoic (DHA) 20 6 Fish oil
What is the difference between and Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acid? Omega 3 fatty acid has the first hotspot after the third fatty acid, omega 6 is after the 6th fatty acid, both have multiple hot spots that are unsaturated.
What are the two essential fatty acids, what is their importance? What are they sometimes referred to? Lionleic and Alpha-Linolenic – vitamin F.
What is the optimal ratio of omega 3 to omega 6 that should be consumed within diet? If this ratio is out of balance what diseases risks are increased (5)? 1:2 or 1:4 – the ratio determines the flexibility of cell membranes – therefore the communication between cells. Obesity, Coronary Heart Disease, Heart transplant success, Non- insulin dependent Diabetes, chronic inflammation.
What is an eicosanoid? Regulatory molecule with 20 carbon atoms made from omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids – four most common types are prostaglandins, protacyclins, leukotriene and thromboxanes.
What are prostogladins and how are they related to inflammation? What type of fatty acid is most associated with inflammation? There are series 1 prostaglandins (DGLA – dihomogammalioneic acid) and 3 (EPA)which decrease inflammation and series 2 prostaglandins made of the arachidonic fatty acid and increase inflammation - blood vessels constrict and blood platelets clump together
What are triglycerides? Three fatty acids with a glycerol backbone – these are the fats that are stored in our body and are made from the fats that we eat. 95% of total
What are phospholipids? What are the 3 most common types? Two fatty acids and phosphorous containing molecule, with a glycerol backbone these form the cell structure. 3 phosphorous molecules. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)– letithin – most common Phosphatidylinositol (PI) Phosphatidylserine (PS) – brain health
What type of phospholipid is thought to help with brain aging? How was this determined? The brain has 35% DHA attached as the middle fatty acid and phosphatidylserine – creating a phospholipid. Supplementation with DHA and PS can help with brain aging and mental function.
Where is lecithin usually found in dietary sources? What helpful health benefit is it thought to be associated with? Lecithin is found in egg yolk and derived from soy beans. Lowers LDL cholesterol – decreases risk of heart disease.
What is sphingolipid? Why are they important? Lipids that form brain nerve cells, regulate nerve function. Sphingomyelin- spingolipid that can be broken down into ceramide & phosphoryl choline. Ceramide helps regulate uptake of glucose by counteracting insulin, cells die to allow new cells to form.
What is cholesterol? Where is it in the body? What are food sources of cholesterol? A sterol lipid manufactured in the liver, precursor to bile and sex hormones. Present in liver, brain, blood steam and nervous tissue. LDL deposits cholesterol throughout the body HDL brings cholesterol to liver. HDL is good guy.
Explain the difference between the LDL and HDL systems? Which is the “good guy” and why? What is new science pointing to with raising HDL levels? LDL deposits cholesterol throughout the body HDL brings cholesterol to liver. HDL is good guy. Exercise and fiber can increase the amount of HDL. HDL also helps lower immune system response and reduce inflammation.
What is the issue with blood cholesterol, how is it caused?
Explain the fat digestion process - beginning part - mouth - stomach including enzymes? Starts mechanical breakdown in mouth moves to stomach with gastric lipase helping to break down further, HCl and other enzymes help to free fats from proteins and carbs.
Explain the fat digestion process - main part break down (small intestine) including enzymes. Most of digestion occurs in small intestine where bile (main enzyme being pancreatic lipase) enters (secreted from the gallbladder) released emulsifying fats and breaking into smaller molecules.
Explain the fat digestion process - main part absorption (small intestine) including enzymes. Short and medium chain fatty acids are absorbed by the microvilli, then transported to liver. Long chain need to be converted to triglycerides in intestinal wall – and surrounded by protein coat then transported to liver
Why does fat cause you to feel fuller longer? Fat is less dense than water and rises to top of stomach, they are the last thing to digest – cause stomach to empty more slowly.
What is chylomicron? Chylomicron is a triglyceride or cholesterol or phospholipid covered by protein coat being transported to liver. If there are lots in the blood it will have a milky appearance.
What is the role of chylomicron? These triglyserides or cholesterols or phospholipds, go to liver and are disassembled and then reassembled to form lipoproteins, phospholipids, glycolipids.
How do fat cells work, can we gain more? Each person has a set number of fat cells which can grow in size to accommodate triglyceride stores. Fat cells are formed in infancy and adolescence.
What is the % guideline for dietary fat intake (IOM)? 20-35%
What are some guidelines for dietary fat consumption (8 – 3 IOM, + 5 Elson Haas)?
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