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Units 1-9

Vocab Review for Units 1-9

TermDefinition
weathering the breaking down of rocks on Earth's surface into smaller pieces
erosion the process of moving sediment from one place to another
deposition the dropping or settling of eroded materials
sedimentary rock a type of rock that forms when layers of sediment are pressed together
fossil the remains or traces of a plant or animal that lived long ago
mold an impression of an organism, formed when sediment hardens around the organism
cast a model of an organism, formed when sediment fills a mold and hardens
fossil fuel fuel, such as coal, oil, natural gas, formed from the remains of once-living things
index fossil a fossil of a type of organism that lived in many places during a relatively short time span
mass extinction a period in which a large number of species become extinct
natural resource anything from nature that people can use
renewable resource a resource that can be replaced within a reasonable amount of time
nonrenewable resource a resource that, once used, cannot be replaced in a reasonable amount of time
geothermal energy a type of energy produced naturally beneath Earth's surface
hydroelectric energy energy produced by using the mechanical energy of falling water
biofuel a fuel produced by biological materials, such as wood
pollution any waste product or contamination that harms or dirties an ecosystem and harms organisms
conservation the process of preserving and protecting an ecosystem or a resource
energy the ability to cause changes in matter
potential energy energy that an object has because of its position or its condition
kinetic energy the energy an object has because of motion
electrical energy energy that comes from electric current
mechanical energy the total potential and kinetic energy of an object
chemical energy energy that can be released by a chemical reaction
thermal energy the total amount of kinetic energy of the particles in a substance
temperature the measure of the average energy of motion of particles of matter, which we feel as how hot or cold something is
heat the energy that moves between objects of different temperatures
static electricity the buildup of electric charges on an object
electric current the flow of electric charges along a path
conductor a material that lets heat or electricity travel through it easily
insulator a material that does not let heat or electricity move through it easily
circuit a path along which electric charges can flow
series circuit an electric circuit in which the electrical charges have only one path to follow
parallel circuit an electric circuit that has more than one path for the electric charges to follow
balance a tool used to measure the amount of matter in an object, which is the object’s mass
control the experimental setup to which you will compare all other setups
evidence information collected during a scientific investigation
experiment an investigation in which all the conditions are controlled to test a hypothesis
investigation a procedure carried out to carefully observe, study, or test something in order to learn more about it
microscopic too small to be seen without using a microscope
opinion a personal belief or judgment based on what a person thinks or feels, but not necessarily based on evidence
Science the study of the natural world through observation and investigation
scientific method the different ways that scientists perform investigations and collect reliable data
spring scale a tool used to measure force
variable any condition that can be changed in an experiment
accurate in measurements, very close to the actual size or value
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
volume the amount of space something takes up
solid the state of matter in which a substance has a definite volume and a definite shape
liquid the state of matter in which a substance has a definite volume but no definite shape
gas the state of matter in which a substance does not have a definite shape or definite volume
relative density it determines whether one substance will sink or float in another substance
solubility the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance
mixture a combination of two or more different substances in which the substances keep their identities
solution a mixture that has the same combination throughout because all its parts are mixed evenly
force a push or pull, which may cause a change in an object's motion
gravity the force of attraction between objects; such as the attraction between Earth and objects on it
friction a force that acts between two touching objects and that opposes motion
balanced forces forces that cancel each other out, because they are equal in size and opposite in direction
unbalanced forces forces that cause a change in an object's motion because they don't cancel each other out
wave a disturbance that carries energy, such as sound or light, through matter or space
volume the loudness of a sound
pitch the highness or lowness of a sound
light a form of energy that can travel through space and lies partly within the visible range
electromagnetic spectrum all energy waves that travel at the speed of light in a vacuum, including radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays
opaque not allowing light to pass through
transparent allows light to pass through
translucent allows only some light to pass through
frequency a measure of the number of waves that pass a point in a second
reflection the bouncing of light waves when they encounter an obstacle
refraction the bending of light waves as they pass from one material to another
prism a transparent object that bends and separates white light into the colors of the rainbow
engineering using knowledge of science and mathematics to find solutions to everyday problems
technology any device that people use to meet their needs and solve practical problems
prototype a working model
criteria standards that help engineers measure how well their design is doing its job
bioengineering applying the engineering design process to living things
biotechnology a product used to benefit organisms or their environment
atmosphere the mixture of the gases that surround the Earth
evaporation the process by which liquid changes into a gas
condensation the process by which gas changes into a liquid
precipitation water that falls from the clouds to the Earth's surface
water cycle the process in which water continuously moves from Earth's surface into the atmosphere and back again
runoff water that does not soak into the ground and instead flows across Earth's surface
climate the pattern of weather an area experiences over a long period of time
weather the condition of the atmosphere at a certain place and time
climate zone an area that has similar average temperatures and precipitation throughout
equator an imaginary line around the Earth, equally distant from the North and South Poles
latitude the measure of how far north or south a place is from the equator
Created by: wmsScience