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Ch 9 Earth and Space

Definitions from Earth and Space Science BJU Press Ch 9

atmosphere the envelope of gases surrounding our planet
oxygen a colorless, odorless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. Oxygen forms about 20 percent of the earth's atmosphere, and is the most abundant element in the earth's crust
nitrogen the chemical element of atomic number 7, a colorless, odorless unreactive gas that forms about 78 percent of the earth's atmosphere.
homosphere all the mixed together gases in the lowest part of the atmosphere
heteroshpere the atmosphere above the homosphere made mainly of layered gases. these two layers are based on gas composition
troposphere the weather layer- turning sphere
lapse rate the steady drop of temperature in the troposhere
tropopause the upper boundary of the troposphere
stratosphere the second temperature layer- the spreading out layer
stratopause the upper boundary of the stratosphere
jet stream high winds in the stratosphere
contrail aircraft flying at high altitudes leaving vapor trails
mesosphere the layer above the stratosphere- middle sphere
mesopause the higher boundary of the mesosphere
thermosphere the uppermost temperature layer- the warm sphere
thermopause the higher boundary of the thermopause
exosphere the transition zone between the atmosphere and interplanetary space
ozone layer a layer in the earth's stratosphere at an altitude of about 6.2 miles (10 km) containing a high concentration of ozone, which absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth from the sun.
ion electrically charged atoms
ionosphere the layer of ionized atoms
magnetosphere the region surrounding the earth or another astronomical body in which its magnetic field is the predominant effective magnetic field.
aurora borealis a natural electrical phenomenon characterized by the appearance of streamers of reddish or greenish light in the sky, usually near the northern or southern magnetic pole.
aurora australis a natural electrical phenomenon characterized by the appearance of streamers of reddish or greenish light in the sky, usually near the northern or southern magnetic pole.
greenhouse effect the indirect warming of air
greenhouse gases gases in the atmospheres that trap infared rays
conduction the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
convection the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat
meteorology study of the atmosphere
weather the condition of the atmosphere
atmospheric pressure the weight of gases in the atmospere
mirage an optical illusion caused by atmospheric conditions, especially the appearance of a sheet of water in a desert or on a hot road caused by the refraction of light from the sky by heated air.
absolute humidity the total amount of water vapor a certain volume of air holds
relative humidity total amount of water the air does not hold
wind-chill factor strong winds lowering the temperature
precipitation any form of water that falls to the earths surface from the sky
Created by: kjkhp