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Biology Fall Final

What compound forms hydrogen ions in solution? Acid
What is cohesion? Attraction between molecules of same substance
What is a base's function? To form hydroxide ions in solutions
What does polar mean? Unequal distribution of charge
What is adhesion? Attraction between molecules of different substances
What is a solvent? Substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution; ex: water
What are five characteristics of water? Cohesion (molecules stick together), high specific heat (heat needed to raise temperature), polar molecule (partial positive and partial negative charge), universal solvent (dissolves most chemicals), and it takes a lot of energy to change energy level
What is a peptide bond? Bond between amino acids in a protein
What is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates? 1:2:1
What combines with a substrate, speeds up reaction rates, and is NOT used up in a reaction? Enzyme
What increases rate of chemical reaction without undergoing any permanent chemical changes? Catalyst
What are the three types of monosaccharides? Glucose- main source of energy Fructose- sugar in fruit Galactose- sugar in milk
What are the three types of disaccharides? Sucrose- common table sugar; glucose+fructose Lactose- sugar in milk; glucose+galactose Maltose- product of starch digestion; glucose+glucose
What are the four types of polysaccharides? Starch- how plants store food Cellulose- cell wall of plants Glycogen- how animals store food Chitin- cell wall of fungus
What combines with three fatty acids to make a triglyceride? Glycerol
What is the purpose of a lysosome? To hold enzymes created by cell
What are ribosomes? Tiny bodies where proteins are synthesized for the cell
What is a eukaryotic cell? A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
What is a prokaryotic cell? A cell lacking a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (still has DNA floating in cytoplasm)
What is a cell membrane? A lipid bilayer with imbedded proteins that controls what enters and exits the cells
What is cellular respiration and its formula? Converts carbs to ATP; C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
What is photosynthesis and its formula? Process of plants making their own food; 6CO2 + 6H2O + sun = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Where does photosynthesis take place? Chloroplast
What did Robert Hooke do? Created the cell theory, identified cells and named them
Can viruses grow and respond? Yes, but they cannot do anything without a host
How are viruses and cells similar? They both contain genetic material
What is the structure of a virus? Nucleic acid core and protein coat
What genetic material are viruses made of? RNA or DNA, but never both
What is exocystosis? Removal of wastes out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane
What is endocytosis? Process by which the cell takes material inside it by the folding in of the cell membrane
What is plasmolysis? Shrinking of cell due to water leaving the cell
Movement of substances using energy Active transport
What is osmosis? Diffusion of water molecules from high to low across a semipermeable membrane
What is diffusion? Movement of molecules from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration
High concentration of a solute in a solution Hypertonic
Low concentration of a solute in a solution Hypotonic
What is cytolysis? Bursting of cell due to water entering the cell
What is equal concentration of a solute between two solutions? Isotonic
What are the three components of ATP? Adenine, ribose, and phosphate
Where does the light reaction in photosynthesis occur? Thylakoid
What are the two products made in the light reaction that are necessary to run the Calvin cycle? ATP and NADPH
What is released when the third phosphate of ATP is removed? Energy
What cycle of cellular respiration produces high energy carriers that provide electrons for the ETC? Krebs Cycle
Where does Krebs Cycle occur? In the matrix of the mitochondria
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place? Stroma
What is a pyruvate? Three carbon end product of glycolysis
What is a pigment? Molecule that absorbs certain wavelength of light and reflects others
What is anaerobic respiration? Process that occurs in the muscle cells of animals when oxygen is absent
Why does the Krebs cycle occur twice per glucose molecule? Glucose breaks into two pyruvates
What is the role of oxygen in ETC? Final electron acceptor in cellular respiration
What are the sides of a DNA strand made of? Phosphate and deoxyribose sugar
Who developed X-Ray Crystallography that used diffraction patterns to determine that DNA's structure was a helix? Franklin and Wilkins
What are rungs of DNA strands made of? Nitrogenous bases
What is a template? A DNA strand used to make mRNA
What are the two enzymes in replication? Helicase (unzips DNA) and polymerase (adds nucleotides of new strand)
Who developed an accurate model of DNA's three-dimensional structure? Watson and Crick
What are the components of a nucleotide? Deoxyribose, phosphate, and nitrogenous base
What bonds are between strands of DNA? Hydrogen
In what phase do chromosomes line up along equator? Metaphase in mitosis
In what phase do chromosomes form and nucleus and nuclear membrane disappear? Prophase in mitosis
DNA replicates in the S phase in this stage of the cell cycle Interphase
Stages of mitosis in order Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
In what phase does the nuclear envelope and nucleolus reform? Telophase
Where does translation take place? Ribosome
What is an anticodon? Triplet on RNA that is complementary to mRNA codon
What is the job of mRNA? Take DNA message to ribosome
What is the job of tRNA? Carry amino acid to ribosomes
What is a codon? Triplet of mRNA
What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis? Thick mucus in lungs and trouble breathing
What are the symptoms of Huntington's disease? Gradual deterioration of brain which causes uncontrollable movements and mental deterioration
What are the symptoms of Phenylketonuria? Results in mental retardation but can be prevented with low protein diet
What mutation causes the reading frame to shift? Frame-shift (point)
What is a diploid? A cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
Crossing over in a species leads to- Genetic variation
What is a tetrad? Foursome during meiosis made by two homologous chromosomes that have each already replicated into a pair of sister chromatids
What happens in Prophase I? Synapsis occurs between homologous chromosomes
What is crossing over? Homologous pairs exchange genes
What does homologous mean? Pair of chromosomes where each chromosome is similar in shape, size, and genes they carry
What is nondisjunction? When homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
What happens in Metaphase I? Tetrads line up along equator
What is a synapsis? The action of homologous chromosomes pairing up
What is a dihybrid? Cross that follows two different genes as they pass from one generation to the next
What is independent assortment? Principle that states that gene pairs segregate randomly and independently of one another into gametes
What is a monohybrid cross? One trait or gene
What is translocation? Exchange of genes between two chromosomes
What is inversion? Genes on one chromosome are inverted
Are hemophilia and colorblindness sex linked or chromosomal disorders? Sex linked
What is Klinefelter's syndrome? XXY (male)
What is Turner's syndrome? X (female)
What is a DNA fingerprint? Formed by gel electrophoresis
What is gel electrophoresis? Separates DNA into fragments to make a fingerprint
What is hybridization? Selective breeding between different organisms
What does recombinant mean? Combination of DNA from two different organisms
What is a microarray? A tool used to look at how genes are expressed in different cells
Created by: rsmrgn



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