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Gr 8 Science Cells 3

Plant and Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

QuestionAnswer
What are 3 types of Plant Tissue? Protective Photosynthetic Transport
Where can these 3 types of tissue be found? They can be found in the three organs of a plant: leaves, roots and stems
What is the protective Tissue? Forms a covering on the outside of plants that helps prevent water loss and protects the plant.
What is Photosynthetic Tissue? The outside green parts of the plant that transforms the sun's energy into sugar.
What is Transport Tissue? Contains hollow, tube-like cells that move food, water and other nutrients through, or around the plant.
What are the 2 organ systems in a plant? The root system (below ground) The shoot system (anything that is above ground)
Can an organ survive without other organs? No. One organ can not live without the substances and activities provided by the other two organs.
What is Xylem? Conducts water and dissolved minerals up the plant, from the roots to all the other parts of the plant. The path taken is: soil, roots, stems then leaves.
What is Phloem? The main components of phloem are sieve elements and companion cells. Phloem tissues purpose is to conduct food (mainly sugar) from the leaves downwards to all the other parts of the plant.
What is Parenchyma? The cells of parenchyma are large, thin walled, and usually have a large central vacuole. They are often partially separated from each other and are usually stuffed with plastids.
What are 4 main types of Plastids? Chloroplasts Chromoplasts Gerontoplasts Leucoplasts
What is the function of parenchyma cells in the root system? When parenchyma cells in areas that are not exposed to light (the root system) colourless plastids predominate, and food storage is the main function.
What is the function of parenchyma cells in the shoot system/ When Parenchyma cells are exposed to light, for example leaves (the shoot system), chloroplasts predominate and photosynthesis in the main function.
What is the Skeletal System? made up of bones and cartilage. This system provides supports for movement, attachment points for other tissues and protection of other organs. Ex. The spine protects the spinal cord
What is the Muscular System? made up of skeletal, smooth & cardiac muscles. Enables movement. Moves substances through your body & circulates blood throughout body. Ex. swallowing food involves a series of muscle contractions to force food down the esophagus and into the stomach.
What is the Circulatory System? Made up of the heart (an organ), blood vessels and blood. Main purposes are to help the circulation of blood, deliver nutrients, move gases and remove waste products.
What is the Respiratory System? Made up of nose, trachea and lungs. Allows oxygen from the air to enter the body and waste carbon dioxide to exit the body. This is a process called respiration.
What is the Nervous System? Made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves that exist in every part of the body. Sends & receives nerve messages throughout the body. It controls behaviour, movement, and processes such as digestion & circulation.
What is the Digestive System? Made up of the mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas & small & large intestines. Purpose: to break down food so that nutrients can be absorbed by the blood & transported to all cells.
What is the purpose of the Colon? To get rid of all solid waste from the body
What is the Excretory System? Made up of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. This system filters the blood and removes liquid waste and extra water from the body.
What is the Integumentary System? Made up of skin, hair, nails and sweat glands. The skin, hair and nails cover and protect the body. Sweat glands are involved in maintaining a normal body temperature.
What is the Lymphatic System? Made up of lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels and lymphoid tissue. Protects the body. Main function is to transport a clear fluid called lymph throughout the body. Lymph contains a high numbers of white blood cells called lymphocytes.
What is a Lymphocyte? A white blood cell. Protect the body by fighting against infection and destroying or removing any invading organisms and abnormal cells.
What Are the four types of Animal Tissue? Connective Muscle Nervous Epithelial
What is connective tissue? Supports and connects the different parts of the body. The purposes for all connective tissue is binding, supporting, protecting, forming blood, storing fats and filling space.
What are some examples of connective tissue? Cartilage bone blood fat tendons
What is Muscle tissue? Facilitates (makes easier) movement by contracting individual muscle cells (muscle fibres)
What are the 3 types of Muscle Tissue? Skeletal: allows your body to move Smooth: contract to help move food along your intestines Cardiac: contract rhythmically to pump blood.
What is Nervous Tissue? Made up of two main types of cells, neurons and glial cells. Neurons purpose is to transmit and receive nerve messages. While glial cells are in direct contact with neutrons, surrounding/protecting them.
What are some examples of nervous tissue? The Brain Spinal Cord Nerves
What is Epithelial Tissue? Covers the bodies surface and lines body cavities. It also lines the inside of organs, such as the small intestine.
What are the Functions of epithelial cells? Movement of materials in and out, or around the body Protecting internal environment against external environment Secretion
What are the 3 types of epithelium? Squamous Epithelium: Flattened cells Cuboidal Epithelium: Cube shaped cells Columnar Epithelium: elongated cells
What is the Endocrine System? Made up of several glands that produce hormones. Glands like pituitary, thyroid & pancreas all produce hormones that carry messages to other parts of the body. In the brain, the hypothalamus acts as the control centre for the endocrine & nervous systems.
What is a hormones? Chemicals that regulate bodily functions.
What is the Reproductive System? Made up of organs for producing offspring.
Why is food research so important? Plants are the beginning of every food chain and having an abundance of healthy plants is the key to feeding the world's population.
How have cell biologists been able to change plants? changed them to allow them to grow in different conditions: areas that are colder or drier & regions w/ shorter growing season Recently found ways to modify plant cells to improve organisms resistance to insects & chemicals that could kill them
What is another example of important food technology? cell biologists changed some plants to increase nutritional value. Ex. in 2000 they developed a modified type of rice (Golden Rice) which has higher vitamin A and iron content than other rices.
What is a positive aspect of food research? reporters believe this important research will solve many of the worlds big food problems.
What is a possible negative impact of food research? some people are concerned that this kind of food contains modified cells that animals & humans have never digested before. They fear the food may affect human cells in ways that no one has anticipated.
What is a Plastid? Any class of small organelles in the cytoplasm of plant cells, containing pigment or food.
Created by: cianieri