Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Microbiology

ch. 17

QuestionAnswer
defenses against any pathogen innate immunity
induced resistance to a specific pathogen adaptive immunity
eliminates harmful B cells clonal deletion
T-cell immunity cellular immunity
T cells mature in the thymus
2 types of T cells helper T cells, cytotoxic t cell
antibodies (Ab) interact with epitopes, or _________ antigenic determinants in antigens (Ag)
property of behaving as an antigen is _________ antigenicity
antibody = globular protein called _______ immunoglobulin
the number of antigen-binding sites determines _______ valence
amount of Ab in serum antibody titer
results when a person is challenged with an antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting active immunity
preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term passive immunity
acquired as part of normal life experiences natural immunity
acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine artificial immunity
antibody/ b- cell immunity humoral immunity
b cells mature where in bone marrow
b cell receptors (recognize) what bacteria
t cells produce what cytokines
type of t cell that binds to proteins on cell surface to initiate phagocytosis t helper cells
type of t cell that produces toxins to kill infected cells cytotoxic t cells
toxins used to kill infected cells perforin and granzyme
roles of B cells? -produce plasma cells to kill infection -produce memory cells
how are b cells activated? b cells bind to antigen
function of plasma cells produce antibodies, then flag t cells to kill bacteria
good antigens are ______ & _______ proteins; polysaccharides
tip of antigen is called what? variable region
the correct b cell is selected because it has correct antibody for specific antigen clonal selection
when b cells dont replicate because they dont have the correct antibody clonal deletion
the right b cells keep producing plasma cells (to kill off infection) clonal expansion
roles of T cells? -produce cytokines -lyse target cells -recognize intracellular pathogens
what properties give better antigenicity? higher foreignness, bigger size, shape, accessibility
are proteins or lipids more antigenic? why? proteins; lots of structures (good antigens)
difference between antigens and epitopes? epitopes: antigenic determinants antigens: contain lots of epitopes
how is a hapten different from an antigen? hapten molecules are very small
what is antibody valence? # of antigen-binding sites
what do antibodies look like? a "Y"
bivalence; makes up 80% of antibodies; most abundant; activates classical pathway IgG antibody
protective mechanisms of binding antibodies to antigens: -agglutination -opsonization -neutralization -(antibody-dependent cell-mediated) cytotoxicity -activation of complement
What is the difference of antibody titer between the primary and secondary immune responses? -primary occurs after initial contact (have to produce antibodies) -secondary (use memory cells): higher titer *more antibodies built up/faster*
During vaccination, why booster shots are needed? -primary response doesn’t last as long as secondary response -losing streak is slow
Which type of immunity, active or passive, lasts longer? Why? Active immunity; stimulates production of antibodies (unlike passive)
primary organs Thymus & bone marrow
secondary organs Tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes
Created by: yulissalira