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ch. 17

defenses against any pathogen innate immunity
induced resistance to a specific pathogen adaptive immunity
eliminates harmful B cells clonal deletion
T-cell immunity cellular immunity
T cells mature in the thymus
2 types of T cells helper T cells, cytotoxic t cell
antibodies (Ab) interact with epitopes, or _________ antigenic determinants in antigens (Ag)
property of behaving as an antigen is _________ antigenicity
antibody = globular protein called _______ immunoglobulin
the number of antigen-binding sites determines _______ valence
amount of Ab in serum antibody titer
results when a person is challenged with an antigen that stimulates production of antibodies; creates memory, takes time, and is lasting active immunity
preformed antibodies are donated to an individual; does not create memory, acts immediately, and is short term passive immunity
acquired as part of normal life experiences natural immunity
acquired through a medical procedure such as a vaccine artificial immunity
antibody/ b- cell immunity humoral immunity
b cells mature where in bone marrow
b cell receptors (recognize) what bacteria
t cells produce what cytokines
type of t cell that binds to proteins on cell surface to initiate phagocytosis t helper cells
type of t cell that produces toxins to kill infected cells cytotoxic t cells
toxins used to kill infected cells perforin and granzyme
roles of B cells? -produce plasma cells to kill infection -produce memory cells
how are b cells activated? b cells bind to antigen
function of plasma cells produce antibodies, then flag t cells to kill bacteria
good antigens are ______ & _______ proteins; polysaccharides
tip of antigen is called what? variable region
the correct b cell is selected because it has correct antibody for specific antigen clonal selection
when b cells dont replicate because they dont have the correct antibody clonal deletion
the right b cells keep producing plasma cells (to kill off infection) clonal expansion
roles of T cells? -produce cytokines -lyse target cells -recognize intracellular pathogens
what properties give better antigenicity? higher foreignness, bigger size, shape, accessibility
are proteins or lipids more antigenic? why? proteins; lots of structures (good antigens)
difference between antigens and epitopes? epitopes: antigenic determinants antigens: contain lots of epitopes
how is a hapten different from an antigen? hapten molecules are very small
what is antibody valence? # of antigen-binding sites
what do antibodies look like? a "Y"
bivalence; makes up 80% of antibodies; most abundant; activates classical pathway IgG antibody
protective mechanisms of binding antibodies to antigens: -agglutination -opsonization -neutralization -(antibody-dependent cell-mediated) cytotoxicity -activation of complement
What is the difference of antibody titer between the primary and secondary immune responses? -primary occurs after initial contact (have to produce antibodies) -secondary (use memory cells): higher titer *more antibodies built up/faster*
During vaccination, why booster shots are needed? -primary response doesn’t last as long as secondary response -losing streak is slow
Which type of immunity, active or passive, lasts longer? Why? Active immunity; stimulates production of antibodies (unlike passive)
primary organs Thymus & bone marrow
secondary organs Tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes
Created by: yulissalira



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