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1st Semester Vocab

Vocabulary from all Units in the 1st Semester

Acceleration change in speed and / or direction of an object’s motion
Atom smallest particle of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Atomic mass average mass of one atom of an element (from particles in the nucleus)
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; used to determine an element's position in the Periodic Table
Balanced chemical equation the numbers of atoms of each element are equal in the product(s) and reactants of a chemical equation
Balanced force equal and opposite forces on an object that result in no change in position, direction, or motion; net force equals zero
Chemical change the formation of a new substance with different properties; cannot be undone by physical means
Chemical equation a representation of a chemical reaction by symbols and numbers
Chemical formula a representation of a substance in which the elements are represented by their symbols and subscripts represent the number of atoms of each element
Chemical property a characteristic of a substance that describes how it combines with other substances to form new ones
Chemical reaction a change caused by the interaction of two or more substances (reactants) resulting in the formation of new substances (products)
Coefficient the number placed in front of a chemical formula in a chemical equation; represents the number of molecules of that substance
Continental drift theory Alfred Wegner’s explanation of continents slowly moving and changing their positions relative to one another
Contour intervals difference in elevation between any two contour lines on a topographic map
Contour lines map symbol showing shape and / or change in elevation on a topographic map
Electrical charge a property of a subatomic particle; positive (protons), negative, (electrons), or neutral (neutrons)
Electron cloud the negatively charged space containing electrons that surrounds the atomic nucleus
Electron a negatively charged particle in the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nucleus
Groups (families) the vertical columns on the Periodic Table
Inertia tendency of an object to resist change in motion
Law of action-reaction for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Law of conservation of mass matter is not created or destroyed; only rearranged
Law of force and acceleration when an object that has a constant mass is acted upon by a force, the object will accelerate in the same direction as the force applied
Law of inertia the tendency of an object to resist change in motion unless acted upon by a force
Net force measurement of the total forces exerted on an object
Neutron a (neutral) particle with no electrical charge within the atomic nucleus
Nucleus the positively charged center of an atom containing the protons and neutrons
Periodic Table a conceptual model in which the elements are organized according to their properties; often displayed as a chart
Periodic trend a regular variation of certain characteristics of elements to increase or decrease along a period (row) or group (column) of the Periodic Table of elements
Periods the horizontal rows on the Periodic Table
Physical property property of matter that can be observed without changing the composition or identity of the matter
Plate tectonic theory the outer most layer of the Earth (lithosphere) is divided into contiguous sections (plates) that move relative to each other causing continental drift, seafloor spreading, and the formation of major physical features of the Earth’s surface
Precipitate the formation of solids from a solution
Product substance(s) resulting from a chemical reaction
Proton a positively charged particle within the atomic nucleus; used to identify an element
Reactant substances that are combined and changed during a chemical reaction
Reactivity tendency of a substance to undergo chemical changes in a system
Speed distance traveled by an object in a given amount of time
Subatomic particle a particle smaller than an atom, such as a proton, neutron, or electron
Subscript the number written to the right and slightly below an element in a chemical formula; represents the number of atoms of an element present in a chemical formula
Topographic maps map showing the shape and elevation of the land surface using contour lines
Topography the shape of the Earth’s surface and the way its physical features are arranged, especially in terms of their positions and elevations
Unbalanced force unequal forces on an object that may result in a change in position, direction or motion; net force does not equal zero
Valence electrons electron(s) located in outer energy level (electron shell)
Velocity a measurement of an object's speed and direction
Yield the quantity of product formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Created by: frattodp