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Atypical bacteria

Lecture 7

Mycoplasmataceae Mycoplasma and ureaplasmasmallest living known free organismpleomorphic shapeno cell wallresistant to penicillin and lysozymecytoplasmic membrane has sterolsattachment organelle with P1 adhesin (absence leads to avirulence)nucleoid
Rickettsiaceae Rickettsia and Orientiasmall, baccilli, coccoidalsimilar to gram-obligate intracellular pathogenscannot be cultured on agarno coenzyme A, NAD, or ATPzoonotic
Anaplasmataceae and Coxiella erlichia, anaplasma, neorickettsia, and wolbachiaobligate intracellular pathogenszoonotic
Chlamidiaceae Chlamydia and Chlamydophilahuman infection only: trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereumzoonotic infections: birds to mansmall, non-motile, coccoidalobligate intracellular pathogensno peptidoglycan in 1st stage of life cycle
Chlamydia life cycle EB taken into host for phagocytosisEB--> IB (8hrs)IB grows and divides by binary fission24-48 hrs IB reorganizes--> EBhost cell liberates EB
Elementary body non replicatinginfectioussmalladapted for extracellular survivalinduce endocytosismetabolically inactive
Reticulate or Intermediate Body replicatingnon infectiouslargeradapted for intracellular growthdoes not induce endocytosismetabolically active
Saprobes live on dead or decaying matterall fungi
symbionts association with mutual advantage
commensals one benefits, the other neither benefits nor is harmed
parasites lives on or within a host, harmful to host
yeasts unicellular, round/ovalreproduce by buddingpseudohyphae
Molds multicellularhyphae, which intertwine to form myceliumreproduce sexually or asexually by producing spores
Hyphae thread like branching filaments, nucleated tubes of cytoplasmpermanentdifferentiationbranchingarthrospores and chlamydospores
septate partitioned
aseptate not partitioned
mycelium intertwined mass of hyphaevegetative: attached to substrate/penetrates to obtain substratereproductive: aerial structures, conidiacotton wool appearance on agar
dimorphism same organism can exhibit 2 formsdepends on chemical and physical factorsFree liviing: mycelial or hyphal formsparasitic: yeast forms
fungal staining procedures KOH: take scraping from margin of lesion, add KOH , warm slide
eukaryotic cell cell surface, cell wall,cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus,cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, ribosomes (80S)no locomotion structure or capsule (except cryptococcus)
cell wall no peptidoglycan, thick and rigidchitinglucans, proteins, and maybe lipids
cytoplasmic membrane phospholipid bilayerergosterol, not cholesterolsite of antifungal drugs
cytoplasmic contents golgi body, ER, cytoskeleton, 80S ribosomes, microtubules
eukaryotic nucleus nuclear membrane boundmost haploidcontains chromosome
zygomycetes most primitivefilamentousnon-septatesexual and asexual reproductionopportunistic
ascomycetes septate, seexual and asexual spores
basidiomycetes septate, sexual sporesmushrooms and puffballs
deuteromycetes septatereproduce asexuallysexual reproductive structures unknown
archiascomycetes sexually and asexually
fungal diseases:mycoses systemic:inhalation, pulmonary then disseminatedsubcutaneous: wound punctures, localizedcutaneous: keratinized and cutaneous tissuesuperficialopportunistic: immunosuppressedmycotoxins: mycetismus and afloatoxin
features shared with bacteria microorganismsgrow axenicallyaerobic or facultativemost are not capable of invading human tissue
features different from bacteria eukaryoticdifferent internal organs80Sribosomelargerbiochemically differentgrow more slowlymultiple reproductive patterns
Created by: kamarsh



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