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Intro to bacteria

lecture 5-6

coccoid spherical
bacillus rod shaped
vibrio twisted
Gram positive stain purple
gram negative stain red
acid fast stain red pink
non acid fast stain blue/green
acid fast methods Ziehl-Neelsen (hot), Kinyoun (cold), fluorochrome
flagellum exdends outward, provides motility, may contribute to colonization (virulence)
monotrichous one at one pole
lophotrichous more than one at one pole
amphitrichous more than one at both poles
peritrichous around the entire organism
Helical filament long and thin, composed of flagellin, antigenic (H antigen) H+ has flagella, H- lack flagella
hook anchors filament into the basal body
basal body contains rod and 1 or 2 sets of double platesall have S&Mgram- have L&P
taxis involuntary movement of organism in response to a stimulus
chemotaxis response to a chemical stimulus, chemicals are recognized by protein receptors in the cytoplasmic membrane
Pilus F pilus (fertility)found only in gram- bacteriatransfer of genetic material between cells
fimbriae common attachment pilimostly on gram-,some gram+adhesion of bacteria to surfaces
Glycocalyx outer surface layer, polysaccharide, non-vitaladherence to species and surfacesantigenic (K Ag)antiphagocytosisPrevention of neutrophil killing of ingested bacteriaPrevention of PMN migration to infectionToxicity to host cellProtection
slime layer poor organization, weak attachment to cell wall, easily removedallows attachment to prosthetic decives, imortant contributor to biofilm formation
capsule organized, tightly adhered to cell wallK antigenused for identification and classificationloss of capsule=loss of infectivitydetected by Quelling reaction (antiserum added leads to swelling)
cell wall surrounds all except mycoplasmamade of peptidoglycan (L and D amino acids)Glycan backbone (alternating NAM and NAG linked by 1,4 glycosidic bonds)each NAM has a bound tetrapeptide which are crosslinked
gram- cell wall 3rd AA:diaminopimelic aciddirect lipoprotein cross linkagefewer cross linkagesopen meshworkthink peptidoglycan layerouter membrane attached by Braun proteinsporinsLPS
gram+ cell wall 3rd AA: L-lysinepentaglycine cross linkagesgreater cross linkagestighter frameworkthick peptidoglycan layer, teichoic and lipoteichoic acid
Lipoteichoic acid covalently bound to cell membrane glycolipidsbinds protons and cationsantigenicplays a tole in dermal necrosis, adhesion, complement activation, specific immunity, non-specific immunity, induction of hypersensitivity
LPS Lipid A anchors to outer membranecore polysaccharideterminal polysaccharide (O Ag)known as endotoxin
endotoxin can induce fever, hemorrhagic necrosis, disseminated intravascular necrosis, TNF production, alternative completment pathway, bone marrow cell proliferation, lysate reaction
LOS same as LPS without O antigen
Acid fast cell wall thin peptidoglycan layerexternal arabinogalactan layerwaxy appearancemycobacterium and nocardium
Lysozyme natural defense in saliva, mucous, blood, sweat, and tearscleaves beta 1,4 bonds between NAM and NAGdestroys all or part of cell wall
spheroblast portion of cell wall remains (gram -)
protoplast cell wall completely removed (gram+)
Penicillin binds irreversibley to PBPs. Forms inactive complexes with transpeptidasem inhibiting formation of peptide cross linkagesresults in defective cell wallsacts only on growing cells
periplasmic space between inner and outer membrane in gram-present in some gram+contains nutrient transport proteins, acquisition enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, and osmoprotectants
axial filaments long thin microfibril inserted into a hookenclosed in periplasmic spaceendoflagellumcorkscrew like motion
cytoplasmic membrane phospholipid bilayerno sterols (except mycoplasma)active transportsecretion of extracellular enzymes and toxinsoxidative phosphorylationbiosynthesis and export of cell wall componentsanchoring DNAchemotactic
protoplasm granular appearance due to free ribosomessite of all biochemical activity70-80% water, acts as a solvent
ribosomes RNA/protein bodiessite of protein synthesis70S: 50 and 30S, site for antibiotic action
mesosomes extensive invagtinations of cytoplasmic membranein gram +function unknown (may anchor DNA in division)
chromatin area prokaryotes have no distinct membrane enclosed nucleus, or mitotic apparatusNucleoid
bacterial chromosome single haploid circular DNAall genes linked, no histone proteinsMg and polyamines act similarly to histones
plasmids circular extrachromosomal DNAself replicatingcarry supplemental genetic information
inclusion bodies storage granulesnot permanent
endospores produced in environmental stressresistant to UV radiation, irradiation, chemical disinfection, dryingkeratin like protein coatpeptidoglycan cortexspore wallcore with complete nucleus, protein synthesizing apparatus, energy generating system.
sporulation true differentiation1 vegetative cell to 1 spore6-8 hours
germination outgrowth from spore1 spore-1 vegetative cellonly occurs when environmental conditions are suitable for bacterial cell growth2 hours
Created by: kamarsh