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.Chapter 10.

Acid-Base Balance

QuestionAnswer
Respiratory Acidosis Total concentration of buffer base is lower than normal with greater hydrogen ions equals greater number of hydrogen ions circulating in the blood that can be absorbed by the buffer system
Causes of Respiratory Acidosis Any Obstruction of the airway or depress respiratory status - Asthma, Atelectasis, brain tumor, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, emphysema, hypoventilation pulmonary edema, medication
Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis Rapid irregular pulse
Treatment for Respiratory Acidosis Maintain patent airway, suction client, administer oxygen
Respiratory Alkalosis A decrease in H+ ion concentration resulting in accumulation of base
Causes of Respiratory Alkalosis Conditions causing overstimulation of the respiratory status - Fever, hyperventilation, hypoxia, hysteria, pain
Sign and Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis Hyperventilation and respiratory stimulation cause abnormal rapid and deep respiration (tachypnea) - hypocalcemia, hypokalemia
Treatments for Respiratory Alkalosis Maintain patent airway, assist with techniques and breathing aids, provide cautious care with ventilator clients
Metabolic Acidosis Increase in H+ ion concentration, losing buffer base or retaining to much acid with out sufficient base
Causes of Metabolic Acidosis Diabetic Mellitus-Diabetic Ketoacidosis, renal insufficiency or failure, insufficient metabolism of carbs, excessive ASA, severe diarrhea, malnutrition, increase fat diet
Sign and Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis Hyperpnea with kussmaul's respirations occur to compensate for acidosis, hyperkalemia, CNS depression, fruity-smelling breath
Treatment for Metabolic Acidosis Maintain patent airway, assess LOC, initiate seizure precautions
Metabolic Alkalosis Decrease in H+ or acids or excessive base
Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis Diuretics, excessive vomiting or GI suctioning, hyperaldosteronism, ingestion of excess sodium bicarbonate, massive transfusion of whole blood
Sign and Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tachycardia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, numbness and tingling in extremities
Treatments for Metabolic Alkalosis Maintain patent airway, monitor potassium and calcium serum blood level
Created by: ivanr_calara