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# Nora Nava (ESPS)

### ESPS Finals Study Guide

1) How old is the universe? It's approximately 13.8 billion years old.
2) What event began the universe? The Big Bang.
3) What are the visible forms of light? They're the colors that the visible light spectrum shows.
4) What is a light year? It's the distance that light travels in a year which is approximately 9.46 trillion kilometers.
5) Explain red shift and blue shift. Red shift is what we detect from a star that is moving away from Earth and blue shift is when a star is moving towards Earth.
6) How is the universe moving and what type of shift of light does it makes us see? The universe is moving outwards (expanding) which makes us detect a red shift.
7) Why do different colors happen in the EM Spectrum? Because when light passes through a prism it breaks into colors and that's what also happens to the sun's light when it passess through Earth's atmosphere.
8) Mention the relationship temperature relate to density. Low temperature= High density High temperature= Low density.
9) Menton two ways to increase gravity. One is by placing two objects with mass together and secondly by increasing the distance between the two objects with mass.
10) What are CMB's? CMB's (Cosmic Microwave Background) are microwaves detected from the Big Bang (afterglow of the Big Bang) and they're important because it's the most important and supporting evidence of the Big Bang Theory.
12) Mention the relationship between density relate to gravity. More density= More gravity. Less density= Less gravity.
13) What happens in cold areas of the CMB? There is less gravity which, with time, would make the space material in this area to collide with one another and form stars and galaxies.
14) Stars and galaxies in the universe start with what type of temperature, density and gravity regions? They start with high temperature and a low density which makes them have low gravity in most of their regions.
15) What is the relationship between wavelength, frequency and energy? More energy= High frequency= Short wavelengths. Less energy= Low frequency= Long wavelengths.
16) Describe how the universe got from the big bang to how it looks today. The universe started with the Big Bang releasing particles that after millions of years collided forming celestial bodies. In the beginning the temperature was very high with very low density but when the temperature cooled down, the density got higher.
17) What are the units of speed? c=3.0*10^8 m/s
18) What are the units of Planck's constant? h=6.626*10^-34 J*s
19) What was the early universe made of? It was made of helium, hydrogen and lithium
20) What was the ratio of hydrogen to helium in the early universe? It was three helium and one hydrogen (He3:H1).
21) What does the process of nuclear fusion release? It releases energy.
22) Describe what kind of star creates a supernova explosion. A giant star creates a supernova that release elements that are more massive than iron.
23) How does a star's mass and elements change over it's lifetime? It's mass and elements become more heavier and massive
24) What does the H-R Diagram represent? It represents the luminosity, brightness and surface temperature of a star.
25) What does analyzing the light that a star emits tells the scientists? It tells them the temperature and elements that a star is made of.
26) What color are the hottest stars and the coolest stars? Hot stars= Blue color. Cooler stars= Red color.
27) Explain the difference between absolute magnitude and apparent magnitude. Absolute magnitude= How bright a star actually is. Apparent brightness= How bright a star looks like from Earth.
28) Mention the four types of stars in the H-R Diagram. 1) White dwarfs. 2) Main sequence. 3) Red giants. 4) Supergiants.
29) What fuses together in a main sequence star? Hydrogen fuses into helium.
30) Define nebula It's a cloud of gas and dust in space were all stars are born.
31) Define neutron star A dense and collapsed star which is mostly made of neutrons because protons and electrons combine.
32) Define black hole It's formed after a supernova and it's so dense that not even light can escape.
33) Define super nova It's the explosion of a supergiant star which also makes it brighter and releases elements more massive than iron. It blows star's outer layers away.
34) Define protostar It's a spinning region in space with a central concentration of matter.
35) Define white dwarf It's the core left when a star collapses an it's also very dense.
36) Define red giant It's a bight star with a hot core that has used most of its hydrogen.
37) What is the atomic mass of hydrogen? H= 1.0079 amu
38) What is the atomic mass of helium? He= 4.0026 amu
39) What does E, m and c stand for in the equation E=mc^2 E stands for energy, m stands for mass and c stands for speed of light.
40) Describe what the different colors in teh CMB represent and how they're related to temperature and density. The different colors represent from the lowest to highest temperature of its different regions. Low temperature regions with high density will be one color while high temperature regions with a low density will be a total different color.
Created by: Navan87