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Physiotherapy lccw

QuestionAnswer
Physiological effects of massage increases: blood flow, heart rate, blood pressure, breaks adhesions, removes lactic acid decreases: edema, congestion, sedates nerves
indications for massage Subacute phase, strains, sprains, tendinitis, bursitis
Contraindications for massage Acute inflammation, ulcerations, thrombosis, varicosities, phlebitis
types of massage effleurage (stroking), petrissage (kneading), tapotement (percussion), vibration (shaking), pressure (nimmo, trigger points)
What does transverse friction massage do breaks adhesions, decreases chemical cross linking, good for sp/st/bursitis/tendonitis bad for calcific tendinitis
For which of the following conditions would transverse friction massage be inappropriate Bursitis, chronic sprain, thrombophlebitis, TFM is appropriate for all the above? Thrombophlebitis
What are the 2 primary supports to remember soft collar, lumbar support
What is a soft collar used for soft tissue injuries, primarily during acute phase
What is a hard collar or halo used for cervical fractures & instability (think philadelphia, poster, somi, & CTO)
What is a lumbar support used for, when should you remove it To increase intra-abdominal pressure remove when not lifting
What may all braces aid in reduce mobility, provide support, correct posture or position, & relieve stress by supporting muscles & ligaments
What are the indications for using braces provide functional support, joint instability, sp/st, pain
what are the contraindications for using braces may promote adhesions or atrophy
what brace is used for scoliosis Milwaukee
what is an SI girdle used for goes around hips, used for SI hypermobility,
What is an AKA for an SI girdle trochanteric belt
What is a cock-up splint used for CTS
What does a lennox-hill brace do knee brace for de-rotation
What is a figure-eight brace an inversion ankle-sprain brace
what is an AKA for a figure-eight brace Louisiana strap
what are the indications for vibratory therapy adhesions, trigger points, spacticity, headaches(occipital),bronchial congestion, circulatory stasis, constipation, depression, edema, myalgia, joint swelling, intestinal stasis
what are the contraindications for vibratory therapy acute inflammation, acute LBP, advanced heart disease, thrombophlebitis, pneumothorax, over sensitive tissue, near damaged organs, malignancies, fractures, hemorrhagic conditions, bony prominences, lyphangitis, & cervical spondylosis
How many settings are there for vibratory therapy & what are they 3: low, med, & high
what type of application do you use in vibratory therapy for a superficial affect parallel application
what type of application do you use in vibratory therapy for a deep affect percussion
in vibratory therapy what organ do you work towards the heart
in vibratory therapy, when should you stop treatment if excessive redness or itching occurs
how long do you apply vibratory therapy for localized pain less than 10 minutes
how long do you apply vibratory therapy for trigger points 6-8 minutes
how long do you apply vibratory therapy for muscle relaxation 2-10 minutes
how long do you apply vibratory therapy for postural drainage 3-15 minutes
how long do you apply vibratory therapy for body relaxation 3-5 minutes
how long do you apply vibratory therapy with cold 10-12 minutes
what are the physiological effects of traction decrease intradiscal pressure, increase IVF, break adhesions, straighten curve, reduce muscle spasm, create gliding of facets
what are the indications for traction disc syndromes, foraminal encroachment, hyperlordosis, chronic muscle spasms, & adhesions
what are the contraindications for traction bone weakening conditions (ricketts, osteoporosis), presgnancy (particularly intermittent), RA, acute muscle spasms, fractures, hypertensive disorders
For cervical traction, what weight do you start with; whats the max 5% of BW & increase 2 lbs. each treatment to a max of 40 lbs.
What amount of flexion do you traction for C2-C6 25-28 degrees
For occiput-C1 how much flexion do you traction none, 0, nada
How many lbs. does it take to overcome the weight of the skull at least 10 lbs.
For lumbar traction, what weight do you start with; whats the max start with 25% of BW, increase up to 5 lbs. each treatment. Max 150 lbs.
what is gouchers position lumbar traction: supine with legs flexed
when should you stop treatment of traction if patient experiences dizziness, nausea, or discomfort
what position is the patient in frequently during traction horizontal; almost always in flexion (not extension)
the weight of the initial lumbar traction should be what percent of the patients body weight 25
What is cardiovascular exercise vigorous exercise that results in 50-85% maximum oxygen consumption & heart rate of 60-90% max for 15-60 minutes cyclic exercise with large muscles
what is the formula for MHR (max heart rate) 220-age exercise at 60-85%
what is the karvonen formula THR=RHR + .6(MHR-RHR) THR= training heart rate RHR= resting heart rate MHR= maximum heart rate
what are the three main types of contractions isometric, isotonic, & isokinetic
what is an isometric contraction a contraction without movement. Good for early rehab
what can an isometric contraction help with pumping edema
what is an isotonic contraction a contraction with fixed resistance & variable speed
what are the 2 types of isotonic contractions concentric & eccentric
what is a concentric isotonic contraction contraction with shortening (fixed resistance, variable speed)
what is an eccentric contraction contraction with lengthening (fixed resistance, variable speed)
what is an isokinetic contraction fixed speed, variable resistence No eccentric
what is an agonist a prime mover
what is an antagonist opposes prime mover
what is a synergist aids the agonist
what is a stabilizer supports the articulation during movement
what is the neutralizer offsets negative effects of movement
what are buerger-allen exercises exercises for patients w/ peripheral vascular disease (raynaud's buerger's)
How many times are Buerger-Allen exercises done for & in what position 6-7 times in a sitting position, several times/day
What is a procedure for buerger-allen 1. support legs in elevated position at 60-90 degrees for 30-180 seconds ( or until extremity becomes blanched) patient is instructed to actively dorsiflex & plantarflex the ankle
What is a procedure for buerger-allen 2. have feet dangle over edge of bed for 2-5 mins or until hyperemia is seen, then add one min. (should not exceed 5 mins)
What is a procedure for buerger-allen PLace legs in horizontal position for 3-5 mins
what is codman's exercises exercise to strengthen shoulder girdle (cuff muscles) while avoiding supraspinatus use, pendulum exercises
what are kegal exercises post partum/while pregnant or urinary incontinence pelvic floor muscle exercises.
what are jacobson's exercises relaxation exercises to reduce muscle tension, use biofeedback centers, skin detectors to measure stress
what are Borbarths exercises knee exercises for vastus medialis & vastus lateralis
what are claytons exercises crawling exercises to mobilize the spine & strengthen muscles for scoliosis
what is the delorme protocol progressive strengthening 1 x 10 at 50%, 10 rep max 1 x 10 at 75% 1 x 10 at 100%
Williams (vs McKenzies) flexion, emphasis on strengthening abs & glutes (ie sit ups, deep squats), could be used for lower crossed syndrome
McKenzie's (vs williams) extension, can be used in acute stage-passive positioning, three syndromes: postural, dysfunctional, & derangement
Open chain (vs closed) exercises performed with hand or foot free to move, usually non-weight bearing, resistance applied at distal end of limb, bench press, curls, leg raises, leg extensions...
Closed chain (vs open) Exercises where the hand or foot cannot move, usually weight-bearing, hand or for usually in contact with a surface, push-ups, pull-ups, squats, leg press...
which can be used for lower crossed syndrome, williams or mckenzies williams
which uses passive positioning, williams or mckenzies mckenzies
which is extension more used, williams or mckenzies mckenzies
usually non-weight bearing; open or closed open
exercises where the hand or foot cannot move; open or closed closed
resistance is applied at the distal end of limb; open or closed open
bench press, curls, leg raises, & leg extensions are examples of; open or closed open
push-ups, pull-ups, squats, & leg press are examples of; open or closed closed
what are the 3 common exercises for the TVA drawing-in maneuver, ab hollowing, & abdominal bracing
what is the training emphasis in plyometrics power
what is the formula for power force x speed= power
what is the basic movement of plyometrics rapid eccentric contraction followed by rapid concentric contraction
Clap push-up is an example of plyometrics
what is defined as 1 RM strength
which of the following may be defined as the maximum force that can be exerted during muscle contraction: endurance, strength, power, torsion strength
which of the following muscles is most appropriate for selective strengthening to treat chondromalacia patella: vastus intermedius, medialis, lateralis, rectus femoris vastus medialis
what muscles are tight in upper-crossed syndrome pec major, pec minor, levator scap, teres major, upper trap, ant deltoid, subscap, lat, teres major, scm, scalenes, rectus capitus
what muscles are long/weak in upper-crossed syndrome rhomboids, lower trap, serratus ant, post deltoid, teres minor, infraspinatus, post deltoid, longus coli & capitus
What are the main tight muscles in lower-crossed syndrome psoas, rectus femoris, erector spinae, QL, & piriformis
what are the long/weak muscles in lower-crossed syndrome abs, glut max, glut med
which of the following protocols would be best to address a patient with lower-crossed syndrome: mckenzie, delorme, codman, williams williams
what is the action of the cervical spine strengthening flexion, extension, l/r lateral flexion, l/r rotation
what is the motion of cervical spine strengthening when seated pt isometrically contracts neck into their own hand or dr's hand using the motion in which the neck needs to be strengthened
what is the motion of cervical sprine strengthening when using the neck-sys system seating/standing. pt contracts neck into the apparatus at the appropriate height into the direction in which the neck needs to be strengthened
what are the actions of the cervical spine strength test flexion, extension, l/r lat flexion, l/r rotation
what is the pt position & procedure for the cervical spine strength test seated, dr directs pt to perform the 6 ROM grade muscle strength; perform bilaterally
what is the amount of degrees expected for the cervical ROM observed in a cervical spine length test flexion 45-60 extension 55 l/r lateral flexion 40 l/r rotation 70-90
what are the external rotators of the shoulder teres minor & infraspinatus
what is the position for stengthening of the external rotators of the shoulder pt at 90 degrees to door, pt holds tubing in hand furthest from door, elbow bent at 90 degrees, elbow placed firmly into side of body & not allowed to move
what is the motion for strengthening of the external rotators of the shoulder pt pulls tubing away from the midline of the body until they have externally rotated as far as they can
what is the position for the strength test of the external rotators of the shoulder pt face up, pt arm at 90 degrees horizontal abduction w/ arm still on table surface or w/ dr support off table, pt arm pointing straight up to ceiling
what is the motion & observation of the ext rotator of the shoulder strength test dr provides resistance in the direction of internal rotation obs: grade muscle strength; perform bilaterally
when muscles are out of balance the stronger muscles will cause misalignment & undue stress to that particular region of the body
what are the hip flexors iliopsoas, rectus femoris, TFL, & sartorius
what are the hip extensors glut maximus, semi-t, semi-m, biceps femoris
an upward pull on the pelvis anteriorly causes what kind of tilt posterior
an upward pull on the pelvis posteriorly causes what kind of tilt anterior
which group of muscles causes anterior pelvic tilt? low back: erector spinae, QL, etc Hip flexors: rectus femoris, TFL,sartorius, & iliopsoas
which group of muscles causes posterior pelvic tilt abdominals hip extensors: gluts, hamstrings
what are the hip abductors gluteus medius & minimus
what are the 5 muscle testing criteria reliable, valid, measurable, practical, useful
what is a grade 5 muscle strength complete ROM against gravity w/ full resistance
what is a grade 4 muscle strength complete ROM against gravity w/ some resistance
what is a grade 3 muscle strength complete ROM against gravity
what is a grade 2 muscle strength complete ROM with gravity eliminated
what is a grade 1 muscle strength no joint motion, but evidence of slight contractility
what is a grade 0 muscle strength no joint motion, no evidence of contractility
what is functional muscle testing dr observes pt's ability to perform task
what is the functional muscle testing for the quads L2-L4 squat & rise
what is the functional muscle testing for the anterior tibialis L4 heel walk w/ inversion
what is the functional muscle testing for the extensor hallicus longus L5 heel walk
what is the functional muscle testing for the peroneals S1 walk on medial side of foot (eversion)
what is the functional muscle testing for the gastroc-soleus S1 toe walk-rise up & down on toes, bounce on toes
what is the functional muscle testing for the gluteus maximus S1 rise from a seated position without hands
what are the 4 things that should be considered when stretching patient comfort, isolate muscle as best as possible, perform stretch in the opposite direction of muscle contraction & along the muscle fibers, do not injure joints
what is the procedure for passive stretching Hold stretch 15-30 sec rest 30-60 sec repeat 3-5 times
what is the procedure for contract-relax (CR) stretching contract muscle(s) for 5-10 sec; isometric relax 1-2 sec passive stretch 15-30 s rest 30-60 s repeat 3-5 times
what is the procedure for reciprocal inhibition (RI) stretching contract antagonist, opposite muscle from muscle being stretched; isotonic contraction hold 15-30s rest 30-60s repeat 3-5 times
what is the procedure for contract-relax-contract (CRC) stretching contract muscle 5-10s; isometric contraction relax 1-2s contract antagonist; isotonic contraction hold 15-30s rest 30-60s repeat 3-5 times
when may strengthening begin once the pt is properly stretched
what is done in a typical rehab protocol stretch, strengthen isometrically, and then strengthen isotonically
what is facilitated stretching contracting another muscle that will help the muscle you are trying to contract, fire even faster
In the upper extremity, the anterior muscles of the right arm are paired with what muscles for facilitated strengthening posterior muscles of the left arm
in the lower extremity, the anterior muscles of the right leg are paired with what muscles for facilitated strengthening posterior muscles of the left leg
when considering both extremities, the anterior muscles of the right arm are paired with what muscles for facilitated strengthening anterior muscles of the left leg
what is the recovery time for acute inflammation 48-72 hours
what are the s&s of acute inflammation pain, swelling, heat & redness, loss of function
what is the treatment for acute inflammation ice, gentle adjustment, immobilization, physiotherapy
what is the goal of the acute inflammatory stage stop inflammation
what is the recovery time for tissue repair 48 hrs - 6 weeks (healing)
what are the s&s for the tissue repair stage decrease S&S of the acute phase, inflammation, initiate tissue repair
what is the treatment for the tissue repair stage adjustment, continuous passive motion, submaximal limited ROM resistance, back/neck exercises
what is the goal for the tissue repair stage tissue healing, facilitate collegen w/o stressing the injured site, decrease scar formation, decrease pain
what is the recovery time for the remodeling phase 3 wks-12 months
what are the S&S for the remodeling stage decrease pain, increase ROM, Increase stability
what is the treatment for the remodeling stage adjustment, maximal active resistance exercis3e, activity stimulation
what is the goal for the remodeling stage maximal repair: soft tissues, ROM, strength, function
What is the time frame for cryotherapy 10-20 min
what is the time & frequency for cryotherapy of the cervical spine, wrist, elbow, hand, shin, foot, & ankle 10 min, 2-4x/day (min)- 1/hr (Max)
what is the time & frequency for cryotherapy of the t-spine, shoulder, knee 15 min, 2-4x/day (min) - 1/hr (max)
what is the time & frequency for cryotherapy to the l-spine, pelvis, thigh 20 min, 2-4x/day (min)- 1/hr (max)
what is the time & frequency for cryotherapy for pain control 4-5 min, every 30 min
what is the standard rule for time & frequency of cryotherapy 20 min every 2 waking hours
in the repair stage what is the standard protocol for PT slow pace/short range 3 sets/6 reps 2/day (painless)
in the remodeling stage what is the standard protocol for PT slow pace/full range 3 sets/ 6+ reps 2/day
what is the action for massage mechanical: kinetic & friction
what is effleurage stroking distal to proximal ( beginning & end of massage)
what is pressure massage nimmo is type of massage that applies pressure on acupressure points (trigger)
what is petrissage deep kneading of skin w/ large folds
what is pincement massage grasp w/ quick releases
what is roulment raise large fold of skin & roll twd head
what is tapotement percussion w/ knife edge
what are the 5 types of tapotement slapping, pounding, hacking, cupping (for cystic fibrosis), tapping (for childre, upper respiratory)
when is vibration massage used in extremities only
what is the purpose of TFM (transverse friction massage) breaks adhesions in muscles, ligaments, & joint capsule. Decrease chemical cross linking
what is the effect of effleurage sedative
what is the amount of time effleurage is performed at lease 5 min, max 15-20
what is the dr's position for effleurage fencer's stance facing cephalad
which way do the fingers point when doing a pressure massage point laterally w/ palms facing the midline. Push down & laterally w/ calcaneal contact. While maintaining palmar contact, pull medially w/ fingers.
what regions should a pressure massage be performed lumbar & pelvic
what is the effect of a pressure massage increase circulation & lymph drainage
what is the amount of time a pressure massage should be done 30-40 presses/min; max 5 min
what is the dr's position for a pressure massage toggle stance, feet parallel, knees into table, at level of pts pelvis
what is the procedure for a petrissage massage while squeezing the skin, raise a large fold of skin btw your thumb & other fingers. Push thumbs toward the fingers & release. Both hands can squeeze at the same time, or alternate
what is the effect of petrissage stimulatory, breaks up adesions
what is the amount of time that petrissage is performed 30-40 presses/min; max 5 min
what is the dr's position for petrissage fencer stance at side of table facing cephalad
what is the procedure for pincement massage using your right & left hands alternately, grasp & release (quickly) the skin w/ your fingers.
what is the effect of pincement massage stimulatory, breaks up adhesions
what is the amount of time that pincement massage should be done 30-40 presses/min; 5 min max
what is the dr's position for pincement massage fencer stance facing cephalad
what is the procedure for roulement massage raise a large fold of skin between thumb & other digits. begin at the base of the spine & roll the skin in a cephalid direction, along the paraspinals.
what is the effect of roulement massage therapeutic, relaxing, breaks up superficial fascial adhesions, chronic subluxation can be revealved if contact is lost.
what is the amount of time for roulement no more than 3 min
what is the dr's position for roulement massage fencer stance facing cephalad
what is the procedure for tapotement massage knife edge, contact the skin, keep fingers separated, flexed & relaxed.Dr. leans over contact points, w/ both elbows in to the sides. W/ the sides of the 5th digits striking 1st, the rest of the digits quickly fall together in percussive manner. deliver s
What is the effect of tapotement massage stimulatory
what is the amount of time tapotement massage is done 100-200 strokes/min; performed quickly
what is the dr's stance for tapotement massage toggle stance, feet parallel, knees into table, at level of the contact area (spine)
what is the procedure for cupping massage Both arms are pronated when cupped hands make contact with the skin. The motion is performed by flexion & extension of the forearms at the elbow jts. Another form of percussion
what is the effect of cupping massage stimulatory
what is the dr's stance for cupping toggle stance, feet parallel, knees into table, at level of contact area (spine)
How does the vibratory therapy stimulate the spinal centers by deep, rapid, short-duration percussion, applied either by hand or by a percussion type vibrator
what are the guidlines for the vibratory therapy do on SPs, rate 1-2 impulses/sec for 20 sec w/ 30 sec rest intervals. Stimulation (3 min or longer)appears to fatigue excitability & produces an inhibatory effect
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the C1-C2 spinal level vagal response of increased gastric secretion & peristalsis. Increased nasal buccal pulmonary mucosal secretions
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the C3 spinal level Phrenic influence to increase depth of diaphragmatic excursions. Note that C3 inhibition is helpful in chronic cough & hiccups
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the C4-C5 spinal level Lung reflex contraction (used in expiratory dypnea, emphysema) & pulmonary vascular vasoconstriction
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the C6-C7 spinal level Reflex center for increasing generalized vasoconstriction & myocardial tone
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T1-T3 spinal level Lung reflex dilation (inhibitory dyspnea), relax the stomach body & contract the pylorus; inhibit heart action (antitachycardia reflex) & gastric hyper mobility
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T4 spinal level Cardia & aortic dilation & inhibits viscerospasms
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T5 spinal level pyloric & duodenal dilation when applied to the right side
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T6 spinal level gallbladder contraction when applied to the right side
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T7 spinal level slight visceromotor renal dilation when applied bilaterally & stimulate hepatic function
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T8-T9 spinal level Gall duct dilation
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T10-T11 spinal level Slight visceromotor renal contraction, enhance pancreatic secretion, relax intestines & colon, & stimulate adrenals when applied bilaterally to initiate splenic contraction (& circulate RBC'S) when applied to the left side
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the T12 spinal level Prostate contraction & tone of the cecum & bladder sphincter
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the L1-L3 spinal level Uterine body, round ligament & bladder contraction, pelvic vasoconstriction, vesicular sphincter relaxation
What is the effect initiated by stimulation of the L4-L5 spinal level Sigmoidal & rectal contraction, increase tone of lower bowel
what is the angle of application for superficial oscillatory effect of vibratory therapy parallel
what is the angle of application for deeper percussive effect of vibratory therapy perpendicular
what is the angle of application for mixture of superficial oscillatory & deeper percussive effect of vibratory therapy varied
What are the effects of high velocity vibratory therapy analgesia, decrease trigger points, good on muscles, good on periarticular tissues, pre-exercise warm-up, relax spacticity, superficial circulatory stimulation
what are the effects of medium velocity vibratory therapy same as high, but used when milder effect is desired
what are the effects of low frequency vibratory therapy congestion, edema, hyperesthesia, hypomyotonia, postural drainage, stasis
what is the rule for crutches 2-10-30 2- fingers width down axilla, 10- in ches from lateral malleolus to end of crutch on ground, 30-degree angle between side of body
what are the 3 types of cervical supports used & what are they used for soft collar- no ligament laxity firm collar-moderate ligament laxity Philadelphia collar-sever lig laxity (rust's sign)
what is a milwaukee brace used for thoracic scoliosis 20-40 degrees worn 23 hrs/day (>40-refer for surgery)
what is an orthosis an orthopedic device aaploed in treatment of physical impairment
what are the 4 general rules for application of a brace position body part properly, often at "physiological rest" Comfortable, but firm avoid pressure on nerves, vessels, vital structures avoid friction/skin irritation
what are the contraindications for bracing depend on time & nature of pt's condition: if forms adhesions or fibrosis due to chronic lack of motion, if causes vascular stasis, congestion, or ischemia, if results in atrophy/atonicity, if sustained position causes undesired stretching/contrac of CT
what are the 4 categories of cervical orthotics devises cervical collars, cervical braces, cervico-thoracic orthosis (CTO), & halo devices
what type of brace is almost as confortable as a soft collar, is more effective in limiting flexion/ext to 30% normal, less effective in limiting lateral bending 67% normal & limits rotation to 43% normal philadelphia brace
what type of brace is as effective as a philadelphia collar, but is far more comfortable because it rests on the clavicle firm polyethylene collar
what are the 2 types of cervical braces poster brace & somi brace
what is a poster brace has 4 posters, provides more cervical support than collar, less than a CTO, & effective in controlling cervical flexion
what is a somi brace controls upper cervical motion, not good for lower cerv., easy to apply & adjust, uncomfortable for bedridden
What is a CTO most effective for lower cerv(C5-T1), less comfortable than braces, harder to adjest, attaches to thorax via chest strap, more rigid
what does the rigidity of a CTO depend on (3) length of torso attachment, metal vs leather for occiput & mandibular supports, & malleable vs rigid shoulder straps
what are the 3 types of CTO's jewett j-21: 2 poster CTO, rigid metal bands from sternal pad, across shoulders & down back pERTERSON cto: LARGER SUPPORTS, INCLUDES FOREHEAD STRAP mINERVA TYPES: custom molded, total contact
what is a halo traction device skull fixed via invasive pins which are secured to metal halo & attached by metal struts to body jacket. ONLY orthosis restricting motion btw occ & C!; best to restrict motion btw C1&C2: restricts total cervical lat bending to 12 degrees
what are the 3 main purposes of orthopedics as stated by Finneson (lumbar) limit spinal motion, correct posture, & decrease mechanical stress on the lower lumbar spine
what is the definition of scoliosis a lateral curvature of the spine ( usually accompanied by rotary deformity) that is 20 degrees or greater
what classifies scoliosis as rotary SP rotation to concavity
what classifies scoliosis as simple SP rotation into convexity
if a rotary scoliosis you never adjust with a _________ contact Spinous
if a simple scoliosis contact the _____on the high side of the rainbow spinous process
what classifies a functional scoliosis adams sign-curve goes away usually reversible, due to mechanical basis, scoliosis decreases when gravity is removed or causative factor is removed, lateral bending posture corrects
if scoliosis is <20 DC can treat no referral needed
if scoliosis is 20-40 decgrees send to orthopedist for bracing (Milwaukee/copes), continue to treat
if scoliosis is >40 surgical candidates: harrington rods or dwyer procedure (discs removed, screws inserted, wire connected & shortened to compress bone)
How do you monitor the progression of scoliosis (what sign) rissers sign- bone grows over iliac crest capping- grows lateral to medial (asis to psis) begins girls-14, boys 16 takes 1 yr (2 yrs more to fuse)
what is the grading system for the risser's sign 1+= 25%, 2+= 50%, 3+= 75%, 4+= 100%, 5+= fused
what is the xray protocol for monitoring scoliosis take xrays every 3 months, for 3 years after risser sign progression if >20 refer for bracing (or 18-21 degrees in 3 months if increases 5 degrees or more refer out (13-18 degrees in 3 months) once iliac crest fuses, xray 1/yr for the next 5 yrs.
what are the physiological effects of traction decrease intra-discal pressure, increase IVF space, break adhesions, alter curve, break muscle spasms, gliding of facet joints
what type of traction, continuous or intermittent, is good for: facet syndrome, disc syndrome, IVF encoachment, radiating pain & radiculitis intermittent
what are the main reasons for traction rest by immobilization, overcome muscle spasms, seperate bony surfaces
what is the classification of traction methods according to duration (3) continuous: several hours, days sustained: shorter periods (1/2 hour) Intermittent: off & on for brief periods (<1/2 hour)
how long does it take for scar tissue to form completely 3 weeks
what will occur if the inflammatory stage persists excessive fibrogenesis, which resuts in tissue damage
what is the pneumonic for the goal of the inflammatory stage PRICES: protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation, & support
what is the mail goal for the subacute/fibroblastic repair phase continue pain control, remove any persistent inflammation/swelling, increase circulation, increase healing & begin ROM & strengthening
the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum past the red visible light are called ______ & are associated with _____ changes infrared, thermal
the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum past the violet region are called ____ & are associated with ____ changes ultraviolet, chemical
what type of currents affect nerve & muscle tissue & have the longest wavelengths & lowest frequencies electrical stimulating currents
Shortwave & diathermies are considered to be what type of frequency currents high frequency
which has a deeper penetration, shortwave or microwave diathermy microwave
what is the penetration of infrared modalities 1 com or less, superficial
reflected bounce off
refracted direction of travel altered
transmitted goes through the tissueq
absorbed thru tissue & stops
what are the general contraindications for ALL modalities HIM: sytemic Hemorrage, Infection w/ suppuration, Malignancy
what are the general contraindications for ALL heating modalities Diabetes mellitus, avtive TB, encapsulated swelling, decreased thermal sensations, over low back/pelvis during pregnancy
what are the general contraindications for ALL electrical modalities over brain, eyes, heart, carotid sinus, lowback/pelvis during pregnancy, open wounds, pacemakers decreased sensation for direct current (monophasic)
what are the physiological effects of UV skin stuff (anti-fungal, antibacterial, antiviral) vit D production
what are the indications for UV skin conditions, bone conditions where increased Vit D is indicated
what are the contraindications for UV HIM, lupus, acute eczema, hyperthyroidism, sarcoidosis, herpes
Is penetration of UV superficial or deep superficial, 1-2 mm * the most superficial of all modalities
what is the erythema patch test for UV modalities. 5 penny size holes, lamp 30-36" from skin, cover first hole after 15 sec & then 5 sec intervals for each hole thereafter determine time of mild erythermal dose take ~40 seconds to find it
what are the 5 stages of burn SED= sub-eryhermal dose, no reddening MED- mild erythermal dose,reddening w/o desquamation 1st-reddening, slight desquam. 2nd-considerable reddening w/ itching, burning, desquam., blister 3rd- intense rxn w/ swelling, edema, blister 4th-passes skin -
what degree is required to be considered a full thickness burn 2nd
what is the treatment time for UV start w/ MED, increase 15 sec easch visit to max of 3 minutes further care needed: fdecrease distnace by 2" each visit, minimum distance 18"
what is the max dosage of UV 3 minutes, 18"
what is the physiochemical effect of positve pole (anode) attracts acids, repels bases, attracts oxygen, repels hydrogen, corrodes metal (oxidationj)
what is the physiochemical effect of negative pole (cathode) repels acids, attracts babes (alkaloids), repels oxygen, attracts hydrogen, no oxidation,
what is the physiologic affect of positive pole (anode) hardens tissues, decreases nerve irritability, produces vasoconstriction, ischemia, decreased bleeding, dehydrates tissues, acute pain relief
what is the physiologic affect of the negative pole (cathode) sofenes tuissues, increases irritability, vasodilation, hyperemia, increased bleeding, hydrates tissues, may increase pain in acute but decrease in chronic
positive pole (anode) is equivelent to ___ ice
Negative pole (cathode) is equivelent to___ heat
in electrodiagnosis, what what the response of muscle & nerve when stimulated by LVG w/ partial reaction of degeneration Muscle & nerve normal
in electrodiagnosis, what what the response of muscle & nerve when stimulated by faradic w/ partial reaction of degeneration Muscle & nerve slow
in electrodiagnosis, what what the response of muscle & nerve when stimulated by LVG w/ total/full reaction of degeneration Muscle-sluggish, nerve-none
in electrodiagnosis, what what the response of muscle & nerve when stimulated by faradic w/ total/full reaction of degeneration Muscle & nerve: none
in electrodiagnosis, what what the response of muscle & nerve when stimulated by both LVG & faradic w/ absolute/complete reaction of degeneration Muscle & nerve none
what is the recovery time for partial reaction od degeneration 2 weeks
what is the recovery time for total/full reaction of degeneration 3 weeks-1 yr
what is the recovery time for absolute/complete reaction of degeneration never
what is the frequency for IF medium
what is the frequency for LVG low
what is the frequency for LVPC Low
what is the frequency for HVPC low
what is the frequency for tens low
what is the frequency for sinewave low
what is the frequency for faradic low
what is the frequency for microcurrent ultra low
what is the current form for LVG monophasic/DC (galvanic)
what is the current form for LVPC monophasic/DC (galvanic)
what is the current form for HVPC monophasic/DC (galvanic)
what is the current form for TENS Biphasic/AC, pulsed
what is the current form for sinewave Biphasic/AC
what is the current form for faradic biphasic/AC
what is the current form for microcurrent monophasic/DC (galvanic) Biphasic pulsed
what is the waveform for IF sinusoidal
what is the waveform for LVG rectangular
what is the waveform for LVPC rectangular
what is the waveform for HVPC triangular-twin peaked
what is the waveform for tens rectangular
what is the waveform for sinewave sinusidal(nonpolar)
what is the waveform for faradic triangular (slightly polar)
what is the waveform for microcurrent rectangular
what are the primary actions for IF electrokinetic, electroanalgesic
what are the primary actions for LVG electrokinetic, electrochemical, electroanalgesic, iontophoresis
what are the primary actions for LVPC electrokinetic, electrochemical, electroanalgesic
what are the primary actions for HVPC electrokinetic, electrochemical, electroanalgesic
what are the primary actions for tens electroanalgesic
what are the primary actions for sinewave & faradic electrokinetic
what are the primary actions for microcurrent electroanalgesic, tissue healing(primarily)
Ohm's law the current in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the voltage & inversely proportional to the resistance
electrical power is measured in watts
watts= voltage x amperes
amplitude is intensity
pulse is an individual waveform, may be comprised of 1 or 2 phases
phase is portion of wave that rises above or goes below the baseline
pulse duration is length of time that the current is flowing & is a representation of the duration of the pulse
pulse period is the eriod of time from the start of one pulse to the beginning of the next pulse (may contain a interpulse period)
interrupted modulation current flows for some period & then turned off for a period of time, usually multiple seconds
Burse modulation pulsed current for a short duration followed by an off time of short duration
coulombs law unlike charges attract, like charges repel
kirchoffs principle current will seek out the path of least resistance
if the cell membrane is repeatedly subjected to stimpulation that occurs faster than the cell membrane can repolarize, the membrane will become partially insensitive to the stimulus. This is called wedensky inhibition (nerve block)
"A" motor & sensory fibers are the ___ & conduct the most___ thickest, rapidly
"C" fibers are the ___& conduct the _____. They are associated with____ thinnest, slowest, pain formation
increasing the intensity of the stimulus will result in ____ penetration deeper
Created by: JRW