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Bowel Elimination

Fundamentals of Nursing

What is the primary organ of bowel elimination? Large intestine
When are mass peristaltic waves strongest? During the hour after meals
When does the ability to control defecation normally occur? At age 2-3 years
What provides the bulk of fecal material? Fiber in the diet
What daily fluid intake is recommended to promote normal bowel elimination? 3 liters for men and 2.2 liters for women
What leads to constipation during pregnancy? Slowing of peristalsis during the third trimester
What is the temporary cessation of peristalsis? Ileus
What are some possible causes of constipation? Improper diet, reduced fluid intake, lack of exercise, and certain medications
If fecal impaction is severe, how far can the mass extend? Into the sigmoid colon
Which patients are most at risk for fecal impaction? Those who are debilitated, unconscious, or confused.
When should you suspect a fecal impaction? When there is a continuous oozing of liquid stool
How are hemorrhoids classified? As either external or internal
What are causes of hemorrhoids? Straining at defecation, pregnancy, heart failure, and chronic liver disease
Which medications should you focus on when taking a medication history in regards to a bowel elimination assessment? Laxatives, antacids, iron supplements, and analgesics
What are S/S that can indicate an intestinal obstruction? Cramping pain, nausea, and absence of bowel movements, as well as observable peristalsis
What does the fecal occult blood test measure? Microscopic amounts of blood in the feces
What are the two types of fecal occult blood tests? Guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT)
If the results of a fecal occult blood test are positive, how is it followed up? With a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy
What does an anorectal manometry measure? The pressure activity of the internal and external anal sphincters, reflexes during rectal distension, and rectal sensation.
What is one of the most important habits to teach regarding bowel habits? To take time for defecation
How high should you raise the head of the bed when a patient is on a bedpan? 30-45 degrees
Which has a more rapid effect: Cathartics or laxatives? Cathartics
When should you administer a suppository? Right before a person's usual time to defecate or immediately after a meal
What is the only enema administered to infants and children? Normal saline enema
Why should you use caution if ordered to repeat a tap water enema? Because water toxicity or circulatory overload may develop
What is physiologically the safest enema solution? Normal saline
If a patient is unable to tolerate large volumes of fluid, which enema solution would be best to use? Hypertonic solutions
Hypertonic solutions are contraindicated in which patients? Those who are dehydrated and young infants
What is the most common hypertonic enema solution? Fleet enema
What should be the only soap used in a soapsuds enema? Pure castile soap in liquid form
When should you use caution when administering a soapsuds enema? In pregnant women and the elderly
Which enema solution should a patient try to retain for several hours? Oil retention
True or False: You can give an enema to a patient sitting on a toilet. False
What is the last resort in the management of severe constipation? Digital removal of stool
Why should you use caution when digitally removing stool? Because it can stimulate the vagus nerve, causing a severe drop in heart rate
What foods are recommended for patients with diarrhea? Low-residue foods such as white rice, potatoes, bread, bananas, and cooked cereals
What foods are recommended to promote normal elimination? Whole grains, legumes, fresh fruits, and vegetables
Created by: shrewsbury_sd