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Urinary Elimination

Fundamentals of Nursing

What is the last step in the removal and elimination of excess water and by-products of metabolism? Urinary elimination
What is micturition? Urination
Which kidney is generally higher? The left
What is the functional unit of the kidney? Nephron
What is the normal range of urine production? 1-2 liters per day
What drains urine from the kidneys into the urinary bladder? Ureters
What are the two parts of the urinary bladder? Trigone and detrusor
What contributes to voluntary control over urine flow? External urinary sphincter
Which gender has a shorter urethra? Females
Why are females at a higher risk for UTIs? Because females have a shorter urethra than males and can more easily become contaminated from the anus.
When do people feel a strong urge to urinate? When the urinary bladder fills to 400-600 mL
How many micturition centers are in the spinal cord? 2
What indicates a readiness for toilet training? Ability to recognize the feeling of bladder fullness, hold urine for 1-2 hours, and communicate the sense of urgency.
How can anxiety and stress affect micturition? By affecting the sense of urgency and increasing frequency of voiding.
How does alcohol intake affect micturition? Alcohol inhibits the release of ADH, thereby increasing urine production
What color does propofol turn urine? Green
How can anticholinergics affect urination? They increase the risk for urinary retention.
What is postvoid residual (PVR)? The amount of urine left in the urinary bladder after voiding.
How is PVR measured? Either by ultrasound or straight catheterization
What microorganism is the most common cause of UTIs? E. coli
How are UTIs characterized? By location
What is pyelonephritis? A severe upper UTI
What is a CAUTI? Catheter-associated urinary tract infection
True or False: Overactive bladder usually presents with obvious bladder pathology. False
What is a cystectomy? Surgical removal of the urinary bladder
What are the two continent urinary diversions? Continent urinary reservoir and orthotopic neobladder
What are the two incontinent urinary diversions? Ureterostomy/ileal conduit and nephrostomy
What is the average number of times a person voids per day? At least 5 times
What measure is necessary if an overfull bladder is suspected? To assess with an ultrasound device or bladder scanner
What should the nurse do if a patient's urinary output is less than 30 mL/hr? Immediately assess for signs of blood loss
When should a urine specimen reach the laboratory? Within two hours of being collected
What should a nurse suggest to help a patient prevent nocturia? To avoid drinking fluids 2 hours before bed
What scale are catheter sizes based on? French (Fr) scale
What does the Fr number on a catheter reflect? The internal diameter of the catheter.
What size catheter should must adults use? 14-16 Fr
What are the sizes of catheter balloons? 3-30 mL
What is the recommended size of a catheter balloon for an adult? 10 mL
When should you empty the drainage system of a catheter? When it's half full
What can an overfull catheter drainage bag cause? Tension and pulling on the catheter, which results in trauma to the urethra and urethral meatus
What should you do first if there is no urine in a drainage system? Check to make sure there are no kinks or obvious occlusions in the tubing.
If a catheter becomes occluded, which is best: To flush it or change it? Change it
Why is better to change a catheter rather than flush it? To reduce the risk of flushing debris into the bladder
How long should you monitor a patient's voiding after removal of an indwelling catheter? 24-48 hours
How long can symptoms of a UTI develop after removal of an indwelling catheter? 2-3 days
What are some alternatives to catheterization? Suprapubic catheterization and external/condom catheter
How often should you change the pouch on an incontinent urinary diversion? Every 4-6 days
What are medications used to treat urgency, nocturia, and urgency UI? Antimuscarinics
What should a nurse do when a patient is newly started on antimuscarinics? Monitor for effectiveness by asking the patient to keep a bladder diary
What are foods that are known to cause bladder irritation? Artificial sweeteners, spicy foods, citrus products, and caffeine
What is the goal of intermittent catheterization? Drainage of 400 mL of urine
Created by: shrewsbury_sd