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CellularReproduction

Flash cards/test questions to help with that tough Cellular Reproduction exam

QuestionAnswer
From where do new cells arise? mitosis
Why does the body constantly make new cells? because cells continue to live and die and they need to be replaced
Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell's DNA? need a complete set of data in order to function properly
The original cell that divides is called what? the parent cell
what are the two identical cells called formed from a parent cell called? daughter cells
Copying DNA is known as what? replication
What is the proper order cell cycle? (Hint=5 steps) G1, S,G2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis
Explain in detail how cancerous cells have a way of replicating even through the cell cycle? The proto-oncogenes mutate and the cells continue to divide in an uncontrollable way.
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle? Synthesis
Which phase has 3 stages & name them Interphase G1, S, G2
Which phase has 4 stages & name them Mitosis Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Can the nucleus and nucleolus be seen during interphase? yes
How many chromosomes are in a human body cell? 46
Explain how full chromosomes develop. Form when protein and DNA tightly coil around one another until they condense into a chromosome
Non-condensed chromosomes are called what? DNA
What are duplicated(doubled) chromosomes called? chromatids
What holds chromatids together? centromere
be able to sketch and label all the parts of a chromosome
Where are autosomes found on a pair? the genes that are not located on a sex chromosome
Where are the sex chromosomes found on a pair? 23
What is the genotype for males? For females? Males=XY Females=XX
The presence of which chromosome determines the sex of the child? Y chromosome
In which type of cell does mitosis occur, explain why? Eukaryote because prokaryotes do not have a nucleus to divide
What happens to the nucleus and the nucleolus during prophase. explain why They condense into chromosomes to split so that the cell may be able to continue to divide properly without going through any harmful mutation.
know how to draw and label all parts of the cell in prophase
What happens to chromosomes during metaphase? they line up at the center of the cell
During metaphase where do the chromosomes line up? at the center of the cell
What happens to sister chromatids during anaphase? they are pulled apart towards opposite sides of the pole.
What pulls sister chromatids apart during anaphase? spindle fibers and centrioles
Where are chromatids located during telophase? polar ends
What reforms around each set of sister chromatids during telophase? the nuclear membrane
Explain how cytokinesis occurs in animals and what exactly divides during cytokinesis? A cleavage furrow forms to pinch the membrane into two cells so that the cell will be able to finish duplicating and form two new daughter cells.
How does the chromosomes number of the parent cell compare to that of the 2 daughter cells? How do the cells compare in size? They are the same, both have 46 chromosomes. The two new daughter cells are much smaller than the original mother cell.
Describe what could possibly happen if mitosis is not controlled? a cancerous tumor could form
Do chromosomes replicate or double before meiosis? Replicate
How many divisions occur in meiosis? Is this the same as mitosis? Explain. Meiosis goes through 2 divisions while mitosis only goes through 1.
The original cell that divides by meiosis is _____________ or 2n diploid
How many daughter cells can be produced by meiosis> Is this the same as mitosis? Meiosis ends with 4 daughter cells while mitosis ends in 2 daughter cells
What is the chromosome number of the daughter cells produced by meiosis? How does this compare to the number of chromosomes in the original cells In the original cell there are 46 chromosomes but in the daughter cells there are 23 because its half of the original number
What are the daughter cells called that are produced by meiosis? Name them Gametes sperm and egg cells
Name the 2 types of meiosis Meiosis I Meiosis II
In humans how many chromosomes are in the original cells that undergoes meiosis? 46
After one division, how many chromosomes are in the cells? Are the single or double stranded? 23 double
After the second division how many chromosomes are in the cells, are they single or double stranded 23 single
Is meiosis sexual or asexual reproduction? sexual
Are eggs and sperm haploid or diploid haploid
What process join the egg and sperm to restore the original chromosome # of the organism? sexual reproduction or fertilization
______________ _________________ are pairs of sister chromatids that have the same genes, but may have different alleles. homologous chromosomes
When sperm fertilizes and egg, a 2n cells forms called the what? zygote
In order name the stages of Meiosis I Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I
Name two events that occur in Prophase I -crossing over -chromosomes further condensing
Crossing over results in genetic ____________ in the offspring variation
What even occurs during Metaphase I homologous chromosomes move to the center of the cell
Name 2 events that occur in Anaphase 1 -homologous chromosomes separate -set of chromosomes move to each pole
Name 3 event that occur in Telophase I -cells begin to cleave -spindle fibers disappear -2 sets of chromosomes are at opposite ends of poles
In order, name the stages in Meiosis II Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II
What happens in prophase II spindle forms around the chromosomes
What is the difference between Telophase I and Telophase II TI~ spindle fibers disappear as the cell begins to cleave TII~ nuclear envelop forms around each set of chromosomes
Where are the sister chromatids in Metaphase II? lined up at the center & spindle fibers attach
What happened to the sister chromatids during Anaphase II? chromatids split to opposite ends of the pole.
Meiosis results in _______ haploid cells called __________ 4 gametes
spermatogenesis
Gametogenesis that produces egg cells is called what? oogenesis
How many haploid cells after oogenesis will become an egg cell? 1
Explain why not all 4 haploid cells will survive at the end of oogenesis? 1 of the 4 eggs cells takes most of the cytoplasm and nutrients. The cell then grows while the other 3 eventually die off
Created by: Tae_Tae