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Geography Vocabulary

cartography studying maps and mapmaking
latitude horizontal lines that measure up and down
longitude vertical lines that measure left and right
equator an imaginary horizontal line in the middle of the globe that splits the north and south
hemispheres halves of the earth
atlas a book of maps
contiguous connecting or bordering
precipitation rain, snow, sleet, or hail
population pyramids country's population of males of females in a group by age
global warming when the earth gets hotter over time
weather the condition of the sky at a time and a place
climatre the weather of an area over time
evaporation when liquids become gases
condensation when a gas becomes a liquid
humidity the amount of water vapor in the air
typhoon hurricanes in the western pacific ocean
arid dry
deciduous forest forests with trees that lose their leaves during a part of the year
permafrost permanently frozen soil beneath the ground
coniferous forest forests with trees that make pine cones
mantle the biggest section of the earth under the crust and made up of magma
magma liquid rock; lava
plate tectonics a theory that says that the earth's crust is broken up into moving sections called plates
continental drift a process where the earth's tectonic plates move along the mantle
faults cracks in the earth's; where plates meet
weathering when rocks break down over time
sediment small pieces of weathered rock
erosion movement of weathered pieces of rock, soil, or dirt
glaciers thick chunks or sheets of ice that moves down mountains
delta gathering of sediments where a river ends(mouth)
deslination removing salt from water
drainage basin an area that has been drained by a river and any of it's smaller streams
groundwater water below the ground
soil exhasution when soil has lost its nutrients and has become useless for farming
crop rotation planting different crops in a field over alternation years
deforestation cutting down forests- not a single tree
aqueducts channels or runways used to transport water
aquifers underwater storage of water
demography the study of human population
population density the amount of people in an area
birth rate the births each year for every 1000 people
death rate the deaths each year for every 1000 people
migration moving from one place to another in terms of living
emigrants people who leave a country to live elsewhere
immigrants people who come to a new country to live
pull factors things that bring people to an area
push factors things that push people away from a place
refugees people who were forced to leave a place
globalization when connections around the world increase and cultures become more alike
dialect languages spoken in an area
polytheism having many gods
monotheism having a single god
missionary those who seek to spread their religion
mosque Islamic houses of worship
capitalism system in which businesses and companies are privately owned
communism system where the government controls most economic things
GNP( Gross Nation Product) The value of goods sold domestically( in country) and nationally/overseas
GDP( Gross Domestic Product) The value of goods only sold domestically( in country)
industrialization making an economy more modern with factories and manufacturing
literacy rate the percentage of the population who can read and write
infrastructure the essentials needed for a modern economy
per capita per person
domestication growing plants and raising animals on farms
urbanization growth of people living in cities or towns
CBD( Central Business District) City centers full of skyscrapers, businesses, and offices
subsistence agriculture farming enough only for yourself and your family
pastoralism subsistence agriculture, but with herding animals
agribusiness the use of commercial farms for efficiency and money
nationalism pride for your country
totalitarianism a system in which a person or group has complete control and it's people have little to no say
democracy a system in which the citizens if a country have a say in who governs them
tariffs taxes
hot spot places where magma reaches the surface
megalopolis groups of large cities very close together
arable fit for agriculture
NAFTA( North American Free Trade Agreement) Agreement between the countries of North America regarding free trade with no taxes
parliament lawmaking body governed by a prime minister
consensus general agreement
isthmus narrow strip of land connecting two large pieces of land
conquistadores Spanish soldiers who conquered foreign lands
mestizos ancestry of a mix of American Indians and Europeans
dictator a ruler who has almost complete control
cash crops crops grown for making money
maquiladoras factories in Mexico owned by American companies
mangrove trees grown in salt water
indigenous native to place
mulattoes ` African and European ancestry
ecotourism tourism focused on guided tours through natural areas
cacao plant responsible for cocoa beans
santeria religious blend of African and Christianity originally from Cuba
creole language/people of a blend of African, Caribbean, and European
voodoo Haitian version of African religion with elements of Chrsitianity
el nino ocean and weather patterns affecting southeastern Pacific Ocean temperatures and regional climate
triangular trade slave trade, cash crops, and good traded between West Africa, Caribbeans, America, Europe, and Britain
favela large slums around Brazilian cities
Created by: philliplee2282