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ES Minerals to Know

A list of minerals students should know.

TermDefinition
Quartz Compositional Group: Silicate Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Colors: Clear, White (milky), Pink (rose), Black/Brown (smokey), Yellow (citrine), Red (Eisenkeisel), Purple (amethyst) Hardness: 7 Luster: Shiny Breakage: F
Orthoclase (Feldspar) Compositional Group: Silicate Crystal Structure: Monoclinic Color: Green, Yellow Hardness: 6.5 Luster: GLassy(vitreous) Streak: White Breakage: C
Mica Compositional Group: Silicate Crystal Structure: Monoclinic Color: Clear, Black, Brown, Pink, Silver, Yellow Hardness: ~3.0 Luster: Non-metallic; Pearly Streak: Colorless Breakage: Cleavage Distinctive: Breaks in large sheets
Calcite Compositional Group: Carbonate Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Color: white, gray, red, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, black Hardness: ~3 Luster: Glassy(vitreous) Streak: White Breakage: C - Rhombohedral Distinctive: Fizzes in acid
Dolomite Compositional Group: Carbonate Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral Color: white, tan, gray, pink Hardness: ~4.0 Luster: Glassy(vitreous)/Pearly Streak: Breakage: Concoidal Distinctive: Fizzes poorly in acid
Corundum Compositional Group: Oxide (of aluminum) Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Color: Red, Brown, Orange Hardness: 9 Luster: Glassy (vitreous) Streak: None Breakage: Irregular Distinctive:
Hematite Compositional Group: Oxide (Iron) Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Color: Black, Grey, Brown, Orange Hardness: 5-6 Luster: Metallic Streak: Red/Brown Breakage: Irregular Fracture Distinctive:
Gypsum Compositional Group: Sulfate Crystal Structure: Monoclinic Color: Colorless, white, gray, beige, orange, pink, yellow Hardness: 2 Luster: Glassy (vitreous) / Pearly Streak: W Breakage: Cleavage Distinctive: Looks like calcite, but is not!
Galena Compositional Group: Sulfide (PbS) Crystal Structure: Isometric Color: Grey Hardness: 3 Luster: Metallic Streak: Grey Breakage: Cubic Distinctive: Brittle
Pyrite Compositional Group: Sulfide (Iron) Crystal Structure: Isometric Color: Gold / Yellow Hardness: 6.5 Luster: Metallic Streak: Grey Breakage: Conchoidal Fracture Distinctive: Fools Gold.
Halite Compositional Group: Halide Crystal Structure: Cubic Color: Colorless, white, red, yellow, orange, pink, blue, violet, green, and gray Hardness: 2 Luster: Glassy (vitreous) Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage Distinctive: Tastes salty
Fluorite Compositional Group: Halide Crystal Structure: Isometric Color: All Hardness: 4 Luster: Glassy Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage/Fracture Distinctive: Fluoresces purple
Gold Compositional Group: Native element Crystal Structure: Isometric Color: Gold Hardness: 4 Luster: Shiny Streak: Gold Breakage: Fracture Distinctive:
Sulphur Compositional Group: Crystal Structure: Color: Hardness: Luster: Breakage: Distinctive:
Willemite Compositional Group: Silicate (Zinc) Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Color: Brown, reddish-brown, green, white, and gray Hardness: 5.5 Luster: Pearly / Resinous Streak: White Breakage: Cleavage Distinctive: Fluoresces
Created by: MrGross