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11 Biology

Chapter 10, Unit 4

TermDefinition
macromolecule a very large molecule made up of smaller molecules that are linked together
metabolism the sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
essential nutrient a nutrient that cannot be made by the body, and must therefore be obtained from food
monosaccharide a simple sugar with three to seven carbon atoms
disaccharide a sugar made up of two monosaccharide molecules
polysaccharide a large molecule made up of many linked monosaccharide molecules
glycogen a polysaccharide made up of glucose units
lipid an organic compound that does not dissolve in water, such as fat and oil
amino acid a building block of protein
peptide bond a bond that holds together the amino acids in a protein
polypeptide a linear chain of several amino acids linked by peptide bonds
hydrolysis a chemical reaction in which water breaks apart macromolecules into smaller molecules
enzyme a protein molecule that helps speed up important chemical reactions in the body
alimentary canal the tube through which food is processed, beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus; also know as the digestive tract
mechanical digestion the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces in the mouth by the actions of teeth, beak, or other similar structures, and churning motions in the stomach
chemical digestion the chemical breakdown of nutrient molecules into smaller molecules by enzyme action
salivary glands glands in the mouth that produce saliva to begin the chemical digestion of food
saliva a watery secretion in the mouth that begins the digestive process
esophagus the muscular tube through which food passes from the mouth to the stomach
peristalsis a wave-like series of muscular contractions in the esophagus
gastric juice a mixture of hydrochloric acid, salts, enzymes, water, and mucus that is produced by the glands in the stomach to help digest food
chyme a thick liquid produced in the stomach and made of digested food combined with gastric juice
pepsin an enzyme in gastric juice that helps break down proteins into polypeptides
duodenum a short, wide U-shaped section of the small intestine into which food passes from the stomach
villi finger-like projections lining the surface of the small intestine that increase the surface area to improve the absorption of nutrients
jejunum the portion of the small intestine that follows immediately after the duodenum
ileum the portion of the small intestine that follows immediately after the jejunum
bile a greenish-yellow fluid secreted by the liver that helps digest fat
peptic ulcer a sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, most commonly caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
inflammatory bowel disease the general name for a group of diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines
Crohn's disease a form of inflammatory disease that can affect any part of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the anus
ulcerative colitis a form of inflammatory disease that attacks the colon
hepatitis inflammation of the liver, most commonly cause by a virus
cirrhosis the irreversible replacement of healthy liver tissue with non-functioning scar tissure; most commonly caused by excessive alcohol intake or hepatitis
diabetes a condition in which the body is unable to use glucose for energy
Created by: honey.deering