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Module 4 Kozier

Vital Signs

vital signs body temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure; pain is now being considered the 5th VS
body temp refects the balance between the heat produced and the heat lost from the body, and is measured in degrees
core temperature the temp of the deep tissues of the body, such as the abd cavity
surface temperature the temp of the skin, subq tissue, and fat
heat balance when the amount of heat produced by the body equals the amount of heat lost
basal metabolic rate the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
chemical termogenesis the stimulation of heat production in the body through increased cellular metabolism
radiation the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without contact between them; mostly in the form of infrared rays
conduction the transfer of heat from one molecule to a molecule of lower temp
covention the dispersion of heat by air currents
vaporization continuous evaporation of moisture from the resp trach and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin
insensible water loss continuous, unnoticed water loss; ie from the mouth and skin, sweating
insensible heat loss heat loss from insensible water loss
pyrexia body temp above the normal range
hyperprexia very high fever; above 41 C or 105.8 F
febrile patient with a fever
afebrile patient without a fever
intermittent fever body temp alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temps
remittent fever a wide range of temp fluctuations that occur over a 24-h period
relapsing fever short febrile periods of a few days are interspersed with periods of 101 days of normal temps
constant fever the body temperatures fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal
heat exhaustion is a result of excessive heat and dehydration
hypothermia a core body temp below the lower limit of normal
pulse a wave of blood created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
compliance the arteries ability to contract and expand
cardiac output SV x HRthe volume of blood pumped into the arteries by the heart
peripheral pulse located away from the heart
apical pulse central, located at the apex of the heart
tachycardia excessively fast HR; >100 in an adult
bradycardia slow HR; <60 in an adult
pulse rythym the pattern of beats and the intervals between the beats
pulse volume the force of blood with each beat
elasticity of the arterial wall reflects its expansiblity or its deformities
apical-radial pulse assesses for difference in the apical pulse and radial pulse
pulse deficit discrepancy between apical pulse and radical pulse; urgent
respiration act of breathing
inhalation intake of air into the lungs
exhalation breathing out
ventilation refers to of air in and out of the lungs
costal breathing involves the external intercostal muscles and other accessory muscles
diaphragmatic involves the contraction and relaxtion of the diaphragm and is observed by the movement of the abdomen
bradypnea abnormally slow respirations
tachypnea abnormally fast respirations
apnea absence of breathing
tidal volume the volume that fills up the lungs
hyperventilation very deep, rapid resps
hypoventilation very shallow resps
respiratory rhythm the regularity of the expiration and the insprirations
respiratory quality those aspects of breathing that are different from normal, effortless breathing
arterial blood pressure measure of the pressure exerted by the blood as it flows through the arteries
systolic pressure the pressure of the blood as a result of contraction of ventricles, that is, the pressure when the ventricles are at rest
diastolic pressure the pressure when the ventricles are at rest
pulse pressure difference between the diastolic and systolic pressures
arteriosclerosis when the elastic and muscular tissues of the arteries are replaced with fibrous tissue, the arteries lose much of their ability to constrict and dilate
vicous thick; proportion of red blood cells to the blood plasma is high
hypertension BP presistently above normal
hypotension BP that is below normal
Orthostatic hypotension BP that falls when the client sits or stands
ascultatory gap the temporary disappearance f sounds normally heard over the bracial artery when the cuff pressure is high followed by the reapperance of the sounds at a lower level
Created by: nymph487