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Signs of hypoxemia restlessness, irratibility, confusion, difficulty in breathing, difficulty in breathing, tachypnea, abnormal lung sounds, cyanosis, retractions, dysrhythmias, acid-base imbalance, decreased oxygen saturation
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Obstruction of the Airway) Occlusion by the tongue or mucous secretions Inflammation for croup, asthma, tracheobronchitis, or laryngitis Occlusion of foreign body (e.g., aspiration or vomitus) Chemical and heat burns with inflammation COPD causing airway collapse
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Obstruction of the Airway) Near drowning, occlusion by water
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Restricted Movement of the Thoracic Cage or the Pleura Abdominal surgery (incisional pain restricting movement) Chest injuries (e.g. flail chest or penetrating wounds) Pneumothorax (spontaneous or traumatic) Extreme obesity (restricts thoracic movement) Diseases (spinal arthritis, peritonitis
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Restricted Movement of the Thoracic Cage or the Pleura Diseases (spinal arthritis, peritonitis , kyphoscoliosis)
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Decreased Neuromuscular Function) Depressed central nervous system (drugs including sedatives and anesthesia agents; brain trauma, stroke,) Coma (diabetic, uremic, and from brain injuries
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Decreased Neuromuscular Function) Diseases (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, poliomyelitis, or Guillian-Barre Syndrome
Common Causes of Hypoxia (Disturbances in Diffusion of Gases) Diseases (pulmonary fibrosis or emphysema) Trauma (contusion) Emboli, fat embolus Tumors, benign or malignant Respiratory distress syndrome
Common Causes of Hypoxia High altitude (decreased oxygen in the atomosphere)
Safety Consideration Boxes: Hypoxemia (page 510) Hypoxemia poses a dangerous threat to patients
Safety Consideration: Teamwork for Hypoxemia Patients (page 510) Persistent hypoxic states requires the collaboration of a team consisting of a physician, a respiratory therapist, a laboratory technologist, and a nurse
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) Place a "No Smoking Oxygen in Use" sign on the patient's door and at the foot of the bed or over the head of the bed.
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) Remind visitors about the hazard of smoking when oxygen is in use. Teach the family to smoke only far away (outside the building) from the room where oxygen is in use.
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) Check all electrical devices for frayed wires, and to see that they are in good working order, to prevent short-circuit sparks that could cause a fire.
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) Avoid use of bedclothes and pajamas that are made of material that can generate static electricity. Cotton fabrics are best
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) Do not use oils, grease-based ointments, alcohol, ether, acetone, or other flammable materials on or near that patient when oxygen is in use
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) If oxygen cylinders are being used, handle with care. Be certain they are strapped securely into stands and transport devices to prevent them from falling. Situate the cylinders away from heat and heavy traffic pathways
Safety Considerations: Safety Alert (Oxygen Therapy Safety (page 518) Monitor the patient for skin irritation from the oxygen delivery device Assess for dry mucous membranes, indicating a need for humidification to prevent tissue breakdown and increased risk for infection
Safety Considerations: Safe Oxygen Flow Rates (page 519) Patients with obstructive lung disease should be given only 2 to 3 L/min because higher concentrations of oxygen reduce the respiratory rate.
Safety Considerations: Safe Oxygen Flow Rates (page 519) This is because their incentive to breathe comes from lower oxygen levels rather than higher carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
Safety Considerations: Safe Oxygen Flow Rates (page 519) These patients commonly have a continuous high level of carbon dioxide Check orders for oxygen carefully and always verify high flow rates with the prescribing care provider.
Safety Considerations: Safety Education (page 521) Teaching safety precautions for the home care patient is especially important because there is no medical supervision after the nurse's visit
Safety Considerations: Oxygen Safety (page 535) Observe safety measures to prevent explosion or fire
Safety Considerations: Call Bell (page 537) it is vitally important for this patient to have the call bell at hand at all times
Safety Considerations:Memory Jogger (page 538) Teach safety measures to the patient and family regarding oxygen use. Explain ways to conserve energy to promote independence. Educate patients and family on suctioning techniques.
Created by: shosh316