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marine biology

module 5

Mollusca this phylumsmembers are commonly called mollusks
mollusks has more representative species in the ocean than any other group, includes clams, abalone, cone shells, squid, and octopuses
shell most mollusks have a bilaterally symmetric soft body protected by this made of calcium carbonate
mantle a sheath of tissue surrounding the organs of a mollusk, producing the mollusk's shell and performing respiration
foot many mollusks use a large, muscular this for locomotion, anchoring, or obtaining food
gills Mollusks have these for exchanging gases with the surrounding water, a digestive tract, and a somewhat complex nervous system
radula an organ covered with hundreds of small teeth, used for scraping food into the mouths of mollusks
Gastropoda this class contains the organisms commonly known as snails
operculum many snails have a horny plate, called this, that forms a lid over the opening of the shell when the head and foot are pulled inside and keeping predators from getting inside the shell and moisture from getting out
nudibranchs have no shell at all
Bivalvia this class is made up of organisms such as mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops
siphons structures in a bivalve which are formed when the mantle is fused around inhalant and exhalant openings
byssal threads mussels have strong filaments called this that are used to attach themselves to rocks
Cephalopoda the members of this class are members such as the squid, octopus, cuttlefish, and nautilus
chromatophores these can rapidly change the animals' color to match their surroundings
mantle cavity moves over the gills of Cephalopoda's
chitin a derivative of carbohydrates that provides both flexibility and support
Architeuthis this genus is the giant squid that are greater than 15 meters in length with eyes the size would be larger than dinner plates
chitons usually live on rocky shores and graze on algae
Polyplacophora have eight armored plates protecting their flattened oval shape
tusk shells are found buried in the sediments of deep water, feeding on microscopic organisms
Scaphopoda looks like an elephant tusk with openings on both the broad and pointed ends
open circulatory system a circulatory system in which blood flows out of the blood vessels and into body cavities, where it comes in direct contact with cells
closed circulatory system a circulatory system in which the blood always remains in vessels
hermaphroditic means that each individual can produce both male and female gametes
trochophore the larva of polychaetes are called this
veliger the larva's tiny shell is called this
Arthropoda the members in this Phylum are shrimp, lobsters, barnacles, and crabs
exoskeleton provides body support from the outside of the animal
chitin a tough, flexible material that the endoskeletton is made of
molting the process of shedding an exoskeleton and replacing it with a new one
Crustacea members in this group are shrimp, crabs, and lobsters, and are called the "insects" of the sea
copepods some filter the water for their food, others capture prey, and still others are parasitic., the planktonic species have an enlarged set of antennae that helps them to stay afloat in the water
Barnacles commonly mistaken for mollusks because they have calcium plates surrounding their bodies, but they are true crustaceans
amphipods and isopods are slightly larger than 1 centimeter in length, these generally have laterally compressed bodies while these have ventrally flattened bodies
krill are a little larger than the amphipods and isopods, growing to about 5 centimeters, they are planktonic organisms that resemble shrimp, most filter feeders, eating other plankton
head, thorax, and abdomen arthropods typically have these three body segments
cephalothorax the anterior part of an arthropod body, consisting of a head and other body segments fused together
carapace an armored shield that covers the anterior portion of crustaceans
Decapoda meaning “10 legs,” have five pairs of legs for walking, the first pair is usually larger and has claws for obtaining food and for defense
abdomen the last body part on Decapoda that is incorrectly called the “tail” by seafood lovers
shrimp and lobsters have a long abdomen, and many live on the ocean bottoms where they scavenge for leftover bits of food
Hermit crabs are not really crabs, fit their elongated soft abdomens into abandoned gastropod shells
Crabs have a small abdomen that is folded under their larger, usually rounded cephalothorax
maxillipeds shrimp and crabs, have appendages near their mouths called
compound eyes these made up of thousands of light-sensitive receptors
nauplius these are larvae of the copepods and the barnacles
Pycnogonida are more commonly called sea spiders
Insecta true insects in the sea are found in this class
Merostomata are known as the horseshoe crabs, although they are not true crabs
Echinodermata members are sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars
echinoderms sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars are called
pentamerous have no head, dorsal, or ventral sides, we refer to these animals as having oral and aboral sides
endoskeleton developing from the internal tissues of the animal
water vascular system a network of water-filled canals in echinoderms, used for locomotion and feeding
tube feet are tiny extensions of the canals that, when filled with water, extend for locomotion, as well as sensory, respiratory, and excretory duties
madreporite the water vascular system connects to the outside via this on the aboral surface, this phenomenal arrangement behaves like the hydraulic system in a bulldozer
Asteroidea most commonly recognized echinoderms are the sea stars
sea stars another name for starfish
ambulacral groove a channel along the oral surface of echinoderms through which the tube feet protrude
evert push out of the body
Ophiuroidea are known as the brittle stars
brittle stars are smaller than most other echinoderms and are found on rocky bottoms and coral reefs
Echinoidea includes the sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars
sea urchins resembles a ball with many spines protruding from it
sea biscuits, and sand dollars have a round, flattened endoskeleton with many smaller spines and tube feet
Aristotle's lantern the sea urchin's mouth is made up of a very powerful system of muscles and five teeth called this some species of sea urchins can actually bore into rock or coral with it
Holothuroidea commonly known as the sea cucumbers
sea cucumbers their bodies are sausage-shaped, and they do not have notable radial symmetry, and have a patchy endoskeleton made up of tiny calcareous spicules scattered throughout their skin, and have five rows of tube feet extending along their bodies
eviscerate a sea cucumber will do this that means it will release its insides to distract a predator
Crinoidea includes animals more commonly called feather stars and sea lilies
feather stars move around both shallow and deep waters, crawling over rocks and coral
sea lilies are found in deep water, where they are attached to the bottom
coelomic fluid transports nutrients and gases throughout echinoderms bodies
Chordata a very diverse group ranging from tiny gelatinous zooplankton to large fishes and whales
chordates share a few main characteristics at some stage of their lives one characteristic is the presence of a supportive notochord
notochord a flexible supportive rod that runs the length of the body of the chordates
dorsal nerve cord a long bundle of nerve cells located along the dorsal part of an organism's body
pharyngeal pouches develop openings that allow water to flow over the gills located inside the pouches
Urochordata is entirely marine, and its members are commonly called tunicates, because as adults, the animals cover themselves with a leather-like “tunic”
tunicates more common individuals are the sea squirts and the ascidians
the sea squirts and the ascidians are attached to a soft substrate, and are often mistaken for sponges due to their rounded appearance
tadpole larva in its larval stage, the sea squirt resembles a tadpole and is therefore called this
salps are shaped like tiny barrels, with a siphon on the anterior end and a siphon at the posterior end
Cephalochordata consists of less than 30 species, and are shaped much like a fish
lancelets Cephalochordata are commonly called
oral cirri cleans water of large, indigestible debris
atrial cavity the food particles in the water are trapped in the slits, and the water flows out into here
atriopore the water then leaving the body through this
Created by: #1DoctorWhoFan
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