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Nursing - Nutrition

Nursing Fundamentals Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Nutrition the sum of all the interactions between an organism and the food it consumes
Nutrients are organic and inorganic substances found inf foods and are required for body functions.
24-hour food recall client recalls all the food and beverages consumed during a typical 24-hour period
Anabolism a process in which simple substances are converted by the body cells into more complex substances (e.g., building tissue, positive nitrogen balance)
Anemia a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells or hemoglobin
Anorexia lack of appetite
Anorexia nervosa a disease characterized by a prolonged inability or refusal to eat, rapid weight loss, and emaciation in persons who continue to believe they are fat
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
Body mass index (BMI) indicates whether weight is appropriate for height
Bottle mouth syndrome describes the decay of the infant's teeth caused by constant contact with the sweet liquid in a bottle
Bulimia an uncontrollable compulsion to eat large amounts of food and then expel it by self-induced vomiting or by taking laxatives
Caloric value the amount of energy that nutrients or foods supply to the body
Calorie (c, cal, kcal) a unit of heat energy equivalent to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 C
Catabolism a process in which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances (e.g., breakdown of tissue)
Cholesterol a lipid that does not contain fatty acid but possesses many of the chemical and physical properties of other lipids
Complete proteins a protein that contains all of the essential amino acids as well as many nonessential ones
Demand feeding child is fed when hungry
Diet history a comprehensive assessment of a client’s food intake that involves an extensive interview by a nutritionist or dietitian
Disaccharides sugars that are composed of double molecules
Dysphagia difficulty or inability to swallow
Enteral through the gastrointestinal system
Enzymes biologic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
Essential amino acids amino acids that cannot be manufactured in the body and must be supplied as part of the protein ingested in the diet
Fad a widespread but short-lived interest, or a practice followed with considerable zeal
Fats lipids that are solid at room temperature
Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K vitamins that the body can store
Fatty acids the basic structural units of most lipids made up of carbon chains and hydrogen
Food diary a detailed record of measured amounts (portion sizes) of all food and fluids a client consumes during a specified period, usually 3 to 7 days
Food frequency record a checklist that indicates how often general food groups or specific foods are eaten
Gastrostomy an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach
Glycerides the most common form of lipids consisting of a glycerol molecule with up to three fatty acids
Glycogen the chief carbohydrate stored in the body, particularly in the liver and muscles
Glycogenesis the process of glycogen formation
Ideal body weight (IBW) the optimal weight recommended for optimal health
Incomplete proteins protein that lacks one or more essential amino acids; usually derived from vegetables
Iron deficiency anemia a form of anemia caused by inadequate supply of iron for synthesis of hemoglobin
Jejunostomy an opening through the abdominal wall into the jejunum
Kilojoule (kJ) a metric measurement referring to the amount of energy required when a force of one newton (N) moves one kilogram of weight one meter distance
Lipids organic substances that are greasy and insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol or ether
Lipoproteins soluble compounds made up of various lipids
Macrominerals any of the minerals that people require daily in amounts over 100 mg
Malnutrition a disorder of nutrition; insufficient nourishment of the body cells
Metabolism the sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living substance is formed and maintained and by which energy is made available for use by the organism
Microminerals a vitamin or mineral
Mid-arm circumference (MAC) a measure of fat, muscle, and skeleton
Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) calculated by using reference tables or by using a formula that incorporates the triceps skinfold and the MAC
Minerals a substance found in organic compounds, as inorganic compounds and as free ions
Monosaccharides sugars that are composed of single molecules
Monounsaturated fatty acids a fatty acid with one double bond
Nasoenteric tube a tube inserted through one of the nostrils, down the nasopharynx, and into the alimentary tract
Nasogastric tube a plastic or rubber tube inserted through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of feeding or irrigating the stomach
Nitrogen balance a measure of the degree of protein anabolism and catabolism; net result of intake and loss of nitrogen
Nonessential amino acids an amino acid that the body can manufacture
Nutrients organic or inorganic substances found in food
Nutrition the sum of all the interactions between an organism and the food it consumes
Nutritive value the nutrient content of a specified amount of food
Obese (obesity) weight greater than 20% of the ideal for height and frame
Overnutrition a caloric intake in excess of daily energy requirements, resulting in storage of energy in the form of adipose tissue
Oils lipids that are liquid at room temperature
Overweight BMI 26-30 kg/m2
Parenteral drug administration occurring outside the alimentary tract; injected into the body through some route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intramuscularly)
Partially complete proteins proteins that contain less than the required amount of one or more essential amino acids; cannot alone support continued growth
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding catheter inserted into the stomach through the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen
Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) feeding catheter inserted into the jejunum through the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen
Polysaccharides a branched chain of dozens, sometimes hundreds, of glucose molecules; starches
Polyunsaturated fatty acids fatty acid with more than one double bond (or many carbons not bonded to a hydrogen atom)
Water-soluble vitamins a water-soluble vitamin that the body cannot store, so people must get a daily supply in the diet; include C and B-complex
Vitamin an organic compound that cannot be manufactured by the body and is needed in small quantities to catalyze metabolic processes
Urea a substance found in urine, blood, and lymph; the main nitrogenous substance in blood
Unsaturated fatty acid a fatty acid that could accommodate more hydrogen atoms than it currently does
Protein-calorie malnutrition problem of clients with long-term deficiencies in caloric intake; characteristics include depressed visceral proteins (e.g., albumin), weight loss, and visible muscle and fat wasting
Pureed diet a modification of the soft diet; liquid may be added to the food, which is then blended to a semisolid consistency
Regurgitation the spitting up or backward flow of undigested food
Resting energy expenditure (REE) the amount of energy required to maintain basic body functions
Saturated fatty acids those in which all carbon atoms are filled to capacity (i.e., saturated) with hydrogen
Skinfold measurement an indicator of the amount of body fat, the main form of stored energy
Small calorie (c, cal) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 C
Triglycerides substances that have three fatty acids; they account for over 90% of the lipids in food and in the body
Undernutrition an intake of nutrients insufficient to meet daily energy requirements because of inadequate food intake or improper digestion and absorption of food
Vitamin an organic compound that cannot be manufactured by the body and is needed in small quantities to catalyze metabolic processes
Created by: dustbnne