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11 Biology

Chapter 5, Unit 2

TermDefinition
trait a specific characteristic or feature exhibited by an organism
true breeding organisms that exhibit the same traits, generation after generation
cross the fertilization of a female gamete of specific gamete origin with a male gamete of specific origin
P generation in breeding, the organisms initially crossed and are typically true breeding
F1 generation the offspring of a cross of the P generation
monohybrid cross a cross of two individuals that differ by one trait
F2 generation the offspring of a cross between the F1 generation
dominant the form of a trait that always appears when an individual has an allele for it
recessive the form of a trait that only appears when an individual has two alleles for it
law of segregation traits are determined by pairs of alleles that segregate during meiosis so that each gamete receives one allele
genotype the combination of alleles for any given trait, or the organism's entire genetic make-up
phenotype the physical and physiological traits of an organism
homozygous an organism that has two identical alleles of a gene
heterozygous an organism that has two different alleles of a gene
Punnett square a grid used to illustrate all possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring from genetic crosses
test cross a cross between a parent of unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive parent
dihybrid cross a cross of two individuals that differ in two traits due to two different genes
law of independent assortment during gamete formation, the two alleles for one gene segregate or assort independently of the alleles for other genes
chromosome theory of inheritance traits determined by genes are inherited through the movement of chromosomes during meiosis
pedigree a flowchart that uses symbols to show the inheritance patterns of traits in a family over many generations
autosomal inheritance the inheritance of traits determined by genes on the autosomal chromosomes
autosomal dominant the inheritance of a dominant phenotype whose gene is on an autosomal chromosome
autosomal recessive the inheritance of a recessive phenotype whose gene I on an autosomal chromosome
genetic counsellor a health-care professional with specialized training in medical genetics and counselling
gene therapy a technique aimed at treating genetic disorders by introducing the correct form of the defective gene into a patient's genome
Created by: honey.deering