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11 Biology

Chapter 4, Unit 2

TermDefinition
genetics the study of heredity and variation of living organisms and how genetic information is passed from one generation to the next
somatic cell a plant or animal cell that forms the body of the organism; excludes reproductive cells
chromosome a structure in the nucleus that contains DNA
sister chromatid one of two chromosomes that are genetically identical and held together at the centromere
centromere the region where two sister chromatids are held together in a chromosome
spindle fibre a microtubule structure that facilitates the movement of chromosomes within a cell
centrosome a structure that helps to form the spindle fibres
genome the complete DNA sequence of an organism
sex chromosome an X or Y chromosome, which determines the genetic sex of an organism
autosome a chromosome that is not involved in determining the sex of an organism
homologous chromosome a chromosome that contains the same sequence of genes as another chromosome
gene a part of a chromosome that governs the expression of a trait and is passed on to offspring; it has a specific DNA sequence
allele a different form of the same gene
karyotype a photograph of pairs of homologous chromosomes in cell
asexual reproduction reproduction that requires only one parent and produces genetically identical offspring
sexual reproduction reproduction that requires two parents and produces genetically distinct offspring
gamete a male or female reproductive cell
zygote a cell formed by the fusion of two gametes
fertilization in humans, the joining of male and female haploid gametes
haploid a cell that contains half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
diploid a cell that contains pairs of homologous chromosomes
meiosis the cellular process that produces cells containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
synapsis the aligning of homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 in meiosis 1
spermatogenesis the process of producing male gametes (sperm) in mammals
oogenesis the process of producing female gametes (eggs) in mammals
crossing over the exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes
non-disjunction the failure of homologous chromosome pairs or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis
monosomy the loss of a chromosome as a result of non-disjunction
trisomy the gain of an extra chromosome as a result of non-disjunction
selective breeding the process of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits
artificial insemination the process by which sperm are collected and concentrated before being introduced into the female's reproductive system
embryo transfer the process by which an egg that has been fertilized artificially is transferred into a recipient female's uterus
in vitro fertilization the technique used to fertilize egg cells outside the female's body
cloning a process that produces identical copies of genes, cells, or organisms
gene cloning the use of DNA manipulation techniques to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA
recombinant DNA a molecule of DNA that includes genetic material from different sources
therapeutic cloning the process of replacing an egg cell's nucleus with the nucleus from a somatic donor cell of genetically identical cells
reproductive cloning the process of producing genetically identical organisms
stem cell an undifferentiated cell that can develop and become specialized into different cell types of the body
Created by: honey.deering