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Biological Molecules Review - most important terms

organic molecule carbon-containing compound found in living things
carbohydrate organic compound that is the body’s main source of energy; ex. sugar, starch
glucose a type of monosaccharide; produced by photosynthesis and used by cell respiration
starch a complex carbohydrate made by plants; found in pasta, cereal, and potatoes
glycogen a complex carbohydrate for energy storage in the liver and muscles of animals
lipid organic compound used for long-term energy storage; ex. fats and oils
protein organic compound that builds and repairs body tissue; made of amino acids; ex. insulin, collagen
amino acid the monomer of proteins
nucleic acid organic compound that contains and uses the genetic code; ex. DNA, RNA
nucleotide the monomer of nucleic acids
RNA ribonucleic acid; uses the genetic code to produce proteins
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; contains the genetic code
enzyme a type of protein that catalyzes chemical reactions
activation energy the energy needed to get a chemical reaction started
substrate substance that binds to an enzyme; reactant in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering activation energy; ex. enzymes
Created by: jdriscoll