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Gene and the cell

Gene and the cell terminology

TermDefinition
Replication The process of duplicating DNA before cell division
Polymerase An enzyme that synthesizes long chains of nucleic acid by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of the primer
Helicase A protein that uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to unwind DNA
Ligase The enzyme that catalyzes the final phosphodiester linkage between DNA fragments
Primase The enzyme that sythesises the primer DNA one nucleotide at a time
Primer A starter strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA template
Leading Strand Made by continuous synthesis from a single primer
Lagging Strand Made by synthesis of Okazaki fragments from multiple primers
Replication Origin Where the replication begins. Eukaryotes have many origins of replication
Telomere A repetitive sequence of bases at the end of chromosomes that protects the sequence of bases
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique used to amplify segments of DNA by a few orders of magnitude, generating thousands of copies of the sequence
Chain Termination When dideoxynucleotides block DNA synthesis
Template An original strand of DNA to be replicated
Reverse Compliment The contents of the opposing strand of DNA to the one in question
Quality Score A measure of the quality of the identification of the nucleobases generated by DNA sequences
Deoxynucleotide The structure that makes up a strand of DNA when repeated
Dideoxynucleotide Chain-elongating inhibitors of DNA polymerase
Base pair Two nucleobases bound together by hydrogen bonds
Central Dogma "DNA makes RNA makes protein"
DNA A molecule carrying the genetic information of a molecule
RNA A molecule involved in coding, recoding, regulation and expression of genes
Promoter The region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene
Transcription start site The location where transcription starts at the 5' end of a gene sequence
Termination Site A section of the nucleic acid sequence which marks the end of the gene or operon
Core RNA polymerase The subunits of RNA polymerase needed for catalytic activity. It does not have a sigma factor
Holo RNA polymerase Contains the sigma subunit which decreases affinity for non-specific DNA and increases affinity for promoters
Sigma Factor A protein needed only for the initiation of RNA synthesis
Promoter Recognition Transcription factors recognizing and recruiting RNA polymerase and bind it to the promoter
Closed complexes When RNA polymerase binds to promoter DNA (Two Strands)
Open Complexes The combination of one strand of DNA and one strand of RNA polymerase
Core Promoter The minimal DNA sequence which directs accurate initiation of transcription
Distal Regulatory elements Enhancers, inhibitor, silencers and locus control regions located far away from the genes they control
General (basal) transcription factors (eg. TFIID, TFIIB) Transcription factors that bind to promoters to activate transcription from DNA to mRNA
Enhancers Region of DNA that increases the likelihood a particular gene will be transcribed
Activators A protein that binds to an enhancer that increases transcription of a particular gene
CTD of Pol II C-terminal repeat domain is an extension of the C-terminus of an RNA subunit and acts as a binding scaffold for nuclear factors
Splice site The point at which an intron is spiced out of the code
Intron A noncoding sequence of genetic material
Exon A coding section of genetic material
Complimentary Strand DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA molecule
Splicesome A molecular machine that removes introns from pre-mRNA
Gene expression The process from which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product
5' cap A specially altered nucleotide on the 5' end of pre-mRNA and helps create stable and mature mRNA that can be translated
poly A tail 100-300 A bases which may be important in export from the nucleus and help stabilize mRNA
Operon Linked genes which regulate other genes responsible for protein synthesis
Transcription regulatory protein Activators and Repressors which decide which genes are transcribed and when
Inducer A compound which induces protein synthesis
Regulatory sequence A segment of nucleic acid sequence capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism
polycistronic mRNA An mRNA that codes for several proteins. Common in bacteria and chloroplasts
Constitutive Made at a constant rate
Inducible Needs an inducer to begin synthesis
Catabolite Repression Inhibition of the synthesis of enzymes involved in catabolism of carbon sources other than the preferred one
Consensus Sequences The calculated order of the most frequent residues found at each position of a sequence alignment
Structural gene Genes that encode proteins
Regulatory gene Controls the expression of one or more other genes
Sequence specific transcription factor A protein that binds to specific DNA sequences to control the rate of transcription
Enhanceosome A protein complex created at the enhancer that regulates expression of a target gene
DNA binding domain An independently folded protein domain with a structural motif that recognises DNA
Dimerization domain A specialized domain in a protein that ensures dimerization
Activation Domain A transcription factor scaffold domain that has binding sites for other proteins
Cooperativity When the attachment of a specific molecule increases affinity for other similar molecules
Epigenetics The study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence
5'-methylcytosine The methylated form of cytosine which may be involved in the regulation of transcription
DNA methyltransferase An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to DNA
CpG islands Regions with a high frequency of CpG sites
Chromatin modification Modifications function either by disrupting chromatin contacts or by affecting the recruitment of nonhistone proteins to chromatin
Chromatin remodelling The dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.
Nucleosome The fundamental subunit of chromatin
Histone code The transcription of Dna is partially regulated by chemical changes in histone proteins
Histone acetylase When lysine residues protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome are acetylated
Histone deacetylase When lysine residues protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome are deacetylated
Euchromatin Lightly packed form of chromatin enriched in genes
Heterochromatin Tightly packed DNA
Insulators/boundary elements An insulator is a genetic boundary element that blocks the interaction between enhancers and promoters
Genomic Imprinting An epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner
Translation mRNA is decoded to produce amino acids
Ribosome The site of protein synthesis
Amino Acid The triplet codons that code for specific proteins
Genetic Code The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins
Redundancy When codons code for more than one amino acid
mRNA Messenger ribonucleic acid. They convey genetic information fro DNA to the ribosome
tRNA Transfer RNA that serves as a link between amino acids and the mRNA
rRNA Ribosomal RNA is the RNA component of the ribosome and is essential for protein synthesis
codon A sequence of DNA or RNA that corresponds to a particular amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
Anticodon A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a tRNA molecule corresponding to a complementary mRNA codon
Charged (aminoacyl)-tRNA tRNA to which its cognated amino acid is chemically bonded
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase An enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA
Wobble base A pairing between two nucleotides in RNA that do not follow standard base pairing rules
Peptide bond formation a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule. It is a condensation reaction
Start codon The first codon of an mRNA transcript translated by the ribosome
Stop codon Image result for stop codonwww.chegg.com Stop codons are sequences of DNA and RNA that are needed to stop translation or the making of proteins
A-site Binding site for charged tRNA molecules during protein synthesis
P-site The second binding site for tRNA in the ribosome
Translocation A chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes
Ribosome binding site A sequence of nucleotides upstream of the start codon of an mRNA transcript that is responsible for the recruitment of a ribosome during the initiation of protein translation.
f-met-tRNA^met The aminoacyl-tRNA that initiates bacterial protein synthesis
Initiation factor Proteins that bind to the small subunit of the ribosome during the initiation of translation
Elongation factors A set of proteins that are used in protein synthesis in the process of cell cycle and elongation in some cells
Peptidyl transferase activity The primary enzymatic function of the ribosome, which forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during the translation process
Alpha carbon The first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group Peptide bond
N-terminal amine The start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group located at the end of the polypeptide
C-terminal carboxyl The end of an amino acid chain, terminated by a free carboxyl group
Peptide Short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds
Side chain A chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone
Posttranslational modification The covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins during or after protein biosynthesis
Phosphorylation A post-translational modification of proteins in which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase
Propeptide An inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification
Motif Short, recurring patterns in DNA that are presumed to have a biological function
Point mutation A mutation affecting only one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence.
Missense A missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
Nonsense A mutation in which a sense codon that corresponds to one of the twenty amino acids specified by the genetic code is changed to a chain-terminating codon.
Silent mutation Mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur
Frameshift mutation The deletion or insertion of a base shifts the code and makes it incorrect
Chromosomal rearrangement A mutation involving a long segment of DNA
Single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) Single nucleotide polymorphisms, are the most common type of genetic variation among people. Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block, called a nucleotide.
Genetic Marker A gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species
Tumour supressor A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cance
Oncogene A gene that has the potential to cause cancer
Gene therapy The therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease
binding DNA-binding proteins are proteins composed of DNA-binding domains and have an affinity for either single or double stranded DNA
Created by: 1388126647962710