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7th U 3-2 Science

Cell Structure and Function

QuestionAnswer
The ___ is the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus that includes fluid and all of the organelles. Throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a ___. Cytoskeleton
Found in both plant and animal cells. This organelle is where cell respiration takes place. Mitochondrion
The ___ is the organelle that makes proteins by putting together chains of amino acids using instructions encoded in the cell's DNA. Ribosome
In eukaryotes, some ribosomes are free, and others are attached to another organelle called the ___. Endoplasmic Reticulum
The membrane-bound organelle that packages materials, such as proteins is called the ___. Golgi Complex
Plant cells have a ___ that is a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane. Cell Wall
A __ is a fluid-filled vesicle found int he cells of most animals, plants, and fungi. Vacuole
Found in plant cells, these organelles are where photosynthesis occurs. Chloroplast
Organelles called ___ contain digestive enzymes, which break down worn-out or damaged organelles, waste materials, and foreign invaders in the cell. Lysosome
Eukaryotas are a type of organism that are made up of more ___. which are membrane-bound organelles including a nucleus. Eukaryotic Cells
Unicellular protists. Euglena
An organism that is made of only one cell. Unicellular organism
All __ are made up of one or more cells. Organisms
What are the two types of organisms? Eukaryotic and Prokaryotes
Eukaryotic cells are made up of one or more ___. eukaryotic cells
___ do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells have ___ organelles including a ___. membrane-bound, nucleus
___ cells have membrane-bound organelles including a nucleus. Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic cells can differ from each other depending on their ___. Structure and function
A cell's ___ is the activity the parts carry out. Function
All eukaryotic cells share a, (name two) organelles, and parts that protect and support the cell. Nucleus, membrane-bound
Every cell is surrounded by a ___. It acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment. It protects the cell and regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Cell membrane
DNA is genetic material that contains information needed for cell processes, such as making ___. Proteins
The ___ is an organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material. Nucleus
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or ___, is stored in the nucleus. DNA
DNA is ___ material that contains information needed for cell processes, such as making proteins. Genetic
Cells get energy by breaking down food using a process called ___. Cells use oxygen to release energy stored in food. Cellular respiration
The ___ is a network of protein filaments that gives shape and support to cells. It is also involved in cell division and in movement. Cytoskeleton
Instructions for how to make proteins are stored in ___. These instructions are sent out of the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane through a double layer similar in structure to the cell membrane. DNA
Instructions for how to make proteins are stored in DNA. These instructions are sent out of the nucleus through pores in the ___ through a double layer similar in structure to the cell membrane. Nuclear membrane
The mitochondria then transfer the energy released from the sugar to a molecule called adenosine triphosphate or ___, Cells use __ to carry out cell processes. ATP
Mitochondria have their own DNA and they have two membranes. The outer membrane is ___, and the inner membrane has many folds. Folds increase the surface area inside the mitochondria where cellular respiration occurs. smooth
Why are mitochondria called the powerhouses of cells? Because they produce energy stored from food.
An ___ is any of about 20 different carbon-based molecules that are used to make proteins. Almost all cells have ribosomes, which are the smallest organelles. Amino acids
__ control most chemical reactions of cells and provide structural support for cells and tissues. Proteins
Making, packaging, and transporting proteins requires many organelles. This organelle that makes proteins by putting together chains of amino acids using instructions encoded in the cell's DNA. Ribosomes
The ER assists in the production, processing, and transport of ___ and in the production of lipids. Proteins
___ are not enclosed in a membrane. Ribosomes
In eukaryotes, some __ are free, and others are attached to another organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum. Endoplasmic reticulum
The ___ ER makes lipids and breaks down toxic materials that could damage the cell. smooth
Explain the functions of a cell wall. The cell wall provides support and protection to the cell, and gives the plant its shape.
__ is the process by which cells use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make sugar and oxygen. Photosynthesis
An amino acid is any of about 20 different carbon-based molecules that are used to make proteins. Almost all cells have ___ , which are the smallest organelles. Ribosomes
A system of membranes near the nucleus is called the ___ or ER Endoplasmic reticulum
What are the two types of Endoplasmic reticulum? Endoplasmic reticulum is either smooth or rough.
What is the difference between the two types of ER? Rough ER has ribosomes attached to its membrane, while smooth do not.
The ___ complex is a system of flattened membrane sacs, Golgi
A __ may contain enzymes, nutrients, water or wastes. Plant cells also have a large central vacuole that stores water. Vacuole
__ are found in plant, fungi, archaea, bacteria and some protests. Cell Walls
__ and ___ from the ER are delivered to the Golgi complex where they may be modified to do different jobs. The final products are enclosed in a piece of the Golgi complex's membrane. This membrane pinches off to form a small bubble, or vesicle. The vesicle transports its contents to other parts of the cell or our of the cell. Lipids and proteins
Ribosomes on the ___ ER make many of the cell's proteins. Some of these proteins move through the ER to different places in the cell. Rough
Chloroplasts are green because they contain a green pigment called ___ which absorbs the energy in sunlight. Chlorophyll
What is the function of the Golgi complex? To package and distribute materials such as proteins and lipids from the ER.
How do large central vacuoles differ from vacuoles? A vacuole may contain enzymes, nutrients, water or wastes. A central vacuoles stores water and helps support cell.
In prokaryotes, the __ are suspended freely in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes
What is the difference between smooth ER and rough ER? The smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down toxic materials that could damage the cell. The rough ER make many of the cell's proteins. Some of these proteins move through the ER to different places in the cell.
Plants may wilt if the large central ___ loses water. Vacuole
___ are green because they contain a green pigment called chlorophyll which absorbs the energy from sunlight. Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll are not found in (animal cells or plant cells) and some protists. Animal Cells
___ contain digestive enzymes that remove waste materials whee some are collected in vacuoles. Lysosomes
Chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll are found in (animal cells or plant cells) and some protists. Plant cells
A ___ attaches to the vacuole and releases the digestive enzymes inside. Some of these materials are recycled and reused in the cell. Lysosome
Chlorophyll absorbs the energy in sunlight and uses it to make sugar, which is then used by the ___ to make ATP, Mitochondria
Created by: PRO Teacher wmeeks