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chapter 5 bio terms

TermDefinition
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotic, it consists of a cell growth period in which DNA is synthesized and a cell division period where mitosis takes place.
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division the forms 2 new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis the division of cytoplasm in a cell; follows the division of a cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
histone any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin.
chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
chromotid one of two strands that come visible during mitosis or meiosis
centromere the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach, via the kinetochore, during cell division.
telomere compound structure at the end of a chromosome.
prophase the first phase of mitosis, when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the chromosomes and centrioles migrate to the other side of the cell
metaphase second phase of mitosis, where spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cells
telophase last phase of mitosis where a complete set of identical chromosomes are positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membrane starts to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers dissassemble
growth factor broad group of proteins the stimulate cell division
apoptosis programmed cell death
cancer a type of disorder of cell growth the results in invasion and destruction of surrounding healthy tissue by abnormal cells
benign having no dangerous effect, especially referring to abnormal growth of cells that aren't cancerous.
malignant cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body harming the organism's health
metastasize to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the sight of the disease to other parts of the body
carcinogen carcinogen substance that produces of promotes the development of cancer
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that is genetically identical to the parent
binary fission a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into 2 cells of the same size
tissue a group of similar cells that perform a similar function
organ a collection of tissues that carry out a specific function
organ system 2 or more organs that function together in a certain way to carry out the same or similar functions
cell differentiation A process by which a cell becomes specialized fora specific structure or function during mulitcellular development
stem cell a cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated
Created by: megan_boehl1