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Chapter 5 vocab

QuestionAnswer
cell cycle the life cycle of the cell; in eukaryotes, it consists of a cell-growth period in which DNA is synthesized and a cell-division period in which mitosis takes place
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forma two nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of a cell; it follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell the main ring of DNA
histone a type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
chromatin the substance that composes eukaryotic chromosomes; it consists of specific proteins DNA and small amounts of RNA
chromatid one of the 2 strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
centromere the region of the chromosome that holds the 2 sister chromatids together during mitosis
telomere the region at the tip of a chromosome; a region of repeating DNA sequence that forms one of the end points of the DNA segment that makes up a chromosome
prophase first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
metaphase 2nd phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase 3rd phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
telophase last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers disassemble
growth factor broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
apoptosis programmed cell death
cancer a type of disorder of cell growth that results in invasion and destruction of surrounding healthy tissue by abnormal cells
benign having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous; remain clustered; cured by removal
malignant cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
metastasize to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
carcinogen substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
binary fission a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
tissue a group of similar cells that perform a common function
organ a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
cell differentiation the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
stem cell cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated
Kinases enzymes that when activated, transfer a phosphate group from one molecule to a specific target molecule which increases energy of the target molecule or changes its shape
Cyclins group of proteins that are rapidly made and destroyed at certain points in the cell cycle (checkpoints)
hormones growth factor
Platelets sticky fragments of bone marrow that form clots to stop bleeding
Erythropoietin stimulates the production only of cells that will become red blood cells (need more in mtns. bc less O2)
Oncogenes accelerate the cell cycle
Radiation... kills cells & shrinks tumors
Chemotherapy drugs that can kill actively dividing cells
Totipotent can grow into any other cell type
Pluripotent can grow into any cell type except for totipotent
Multipotent can grow only into cells of a closely related family
Created by: rmve123