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Advanced Biology 15

TermDefinition
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located at specific positions (loci) on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
Wild Type The phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations; also refers to the individual with that phenotype.
Sex-Linked Gene A gene located on either sex chromosome.
Barr Body A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in cells of female mammals, representing a highly condensed, inactivated X chromosome.
Linked Genes Genes located near each other on the same chromosome which tend to be inherited together.
Genetic Recombination General term for the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Crossing Over The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
Genetic Map An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome.
Nondisjunction An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other.
Mutation A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism’s DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus.
Aneuploidy A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
Polyploidy A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. It is the result of an accident of cell division.
Deletion (1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage.
Created by: Mr.Devine
 

 



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