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Cell Division

cell division/reproduction

TermDefinition
Species group of organisms that share certain characteristics and can reproduce with one another
development period of time in which and individual organism grows and becomes more complex; development ends with the ability to reproduce in adulthood
asexual reproduction only one parent involved; results in offspring that are genetically identical, or exact copy, of the parent
sexual reproduction involves two parents and creates offspring with some genetic material (DNA) from each parent; offspring can look like either parent, but they are NEVER the same; genetically unique offspring
types of cell division Mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis cell division where the cell's genetic material divides creating two sets of genetic material; the new daughter cell is an exact copy of the parent cell and only one new cell is made
Meiosis cell division where the cell's genetic material divides twice and creates sex cells with HALF the number of chromosomes as body cells; they are gametes.
male sex cells (gametes) sperm
female sex cells (gametes) eggs
result of meiosis in males one diploid cell (cell with full chromosome number) results in 4 sperm cells
result of meiosis in females one diploid cell (cell with full chromosome #) results in one egg and 3 polar bodies
haploid represented as (n); contains half the number of chromosomes of the species
diploid represented as (2n); contains a full set of chromosomes
recombination occurs during fertilization, process where the genetic material from one haploid cell combines with the genetic material from another haploid cell to create a fully functional diploid cell
zygote cell that contains all of the genetic info required for an organism to perform all life functions; the zygote divides by mitosis to form a multi-cellular organism in multi-cellular organisms
Differentiation Cells become different from one another; in the embryo "all the DNA is exactly the same" * certain genes are activated or deactivated in certain cells. As a result, cells become different from one another * every single cell in body has same DNA
Mutations change in the normal sequence of DNA, possibly resulting in a change in the message carried by RNA; may result in a defective or changed protein
Selective breeding process of breeding plants or animals to produce new varieties with desirable traits
reproduction For any species to survive past a single generation, reproduction must occur; two main types Asexual and Sexual
genetic engineering humans use technology to alter the genetic information of an organism
Biotechnology application of technology on biological sciences (ie. cheese, yogurt & bread)
gene expression gene that "show's up" in an organism. an expressed gene is functional; the environment can influence cells to activate or inactivate certain genes
gene a segment of DNA (on a chromosome) that contains code for a specific trait
trait a characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through the genes
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the material found in all cells that contains genetic information about that organism
chromosome a thick threadlike structure that contains genetic information in the form of DNA
clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
subunit the section of a DNA molecule that contains a sugar, a phosphate, and a base
bond a chemical link between atoms that hold molecules together
template the pattern for a new molecule
expressed the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
Body cells all cells except sex cells (ex: skin cells, liver cells, heart cells...)
Gametes sex cells aka reproductive cells (egg and sperm). also called haploids because they have half the number of chromosomes
Fertilization when egg and sperm meet, happens in the fallopian tubes in a woman
Hormones proteins used in the body to regulate and control feedback mechanisms, travel in the blood
Testosterone male sex hormone that stimulates production of sperm made by the testes (organ)
Estrogen/progesterone female sex hormones that regulate female reproductive cycle and influences the uterus (an organ)
Uterus organ in the female reproductive system; where fetal development happens, the hormone estrogen influences this organ
Fallopian tubes in the female reproductive system; where fertilization happens
Ovaries in the female reproductive system; where eggs are made through meiosis
Placenta STRUCTURE in the uterus with developing fetus, only some things can go from mom to baby but no direct blood contact
Testes in the male reproductive system; makes sperm through meiosis
Ovulation release of the egg from the ovary
Menstruation shedding of the uterus lining, also known as a woman's period
Created by: mrsflower